Study on Horn-Shaped Polypyrrole Electrodes Prepared By Pulse Potential
Polypyrrole (PPy) films were prepared by direct current (DC), pulse current (PC) and pulse potential (PP) in aqueous solutions. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of PPy films indicated that a lot of horn-shaped PPy was formed during PP-PPy polymerization process. The top-end of horn-shaped PPy exhibits both open and closed structures. The body of horn-shaped PPy has a hollow structure with a thin wall. The micelles composed by PPy monomer and p-toluenesulfonate anions (PTS-) was formed when pyrrole monomer was dispersed in aqueous solution containing PTS- anions by mechanical stirring. In PP polymerization, the micelles with negative charge were repelled and hence leave the surface of PPy films at switch off time. As a result, the PTS- anions on the surface of micelles were effectively supplied, and thus stabilized the micelles. This process results in the continuous growth of horn-shaped PPy. The hollow horn-shaped PPy films showed big specific capacitance, high charging/discharging rate and better stability.