Synthesis of SnO2/Transition Metal Oxide Hollow Nanospheres and Their Electrochemical Properties As Anode for Li-Ion Battery

Tuesday, 7 October 2014: 11:40
Sunrise, 2nd Floor, Galactic Ballroom 2 (Moon Palace Resort)
J. Choi (Seoul National University Department of Materials Science and Engineering), W. S. Kim, and S. H. Hong (Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University)
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are the most popular power source not only for portable electronics but also for upcoming electric vehicles. So far, various materials such as graphitic carbon, Si, Ge, MoO3, NiO, Fe2O3, and SnO2 have been exploited as the anode materials for LIBs. Among these candidates, SnO2 is one of the promising materials for anode electrode in LIBs due to its high theoretical capacity (782 mAh g-1). However, the main difficulties for using the alloy-based materials are their dramatic volume expansion and contraction during Li insertion and extraction. This volume change can generate a large internal stress, leading to pulverization of the electrode and electrical detachment of the active particles. Moreover, formation of Li2O, related to irreversible capacity, results in a low efficiency and waste of Li+. If the conversion reaction of Li2O, in SnO2 system, can be induced, the reversible capacity could be increased. Recently, SnO2-transition metal oxide composites, such as MoO3, Fe2O3, and NiO, etc., have been suggested to induce the synergistic effects between Li2O, from SnO2, and transition metal oxide [1-3]. However, most of current studies of these composite materials showed the poor cyclablity and the synergistic effects diminished in the long-term cycling. We believed that these results are realated to the structual instability due to the large volume change during lithium insertion/extraction. Among various nanosturcutres, hollow sphere is the most promising structure because it can accommodate the large volume change and the synthesis process is relatively simple. Thus, we try to synthesize the hollow composite structrue with SnO2 and transition metal oxides.

In this study, we synthesized multi-layered hollow spheres, composed of SnO2 and transition metal oxides (Co3O4 and Fe2O3), by a simple sol-gel based process. Even though cobalt (Co) is well-known catalyst metal for the reversible reaction of Li2O, it is one of expensive materials. So, we also synthesize the SnO2@Fe2O3 hollow spheres with the similar synthesis procedure. The size of synthesized SnO2 hollow sphere is about 60 nm and the shell thickness is about 5 nm. After Co3O4 and Fe2O3 coating, the size was not significantly changed (Fig. 1). The SnO2@Co3O4 and SnO2@Fe2O3@C electrodes showed much higher reversible capacity than SnO2 hollow sphere electrode (Fig. 2) and further cycling test is also examined. The synergistic effects between SnO2/Co3O4 (Fe2O3) and the reaction mechanism observed by TEM and electrochemical analyses will be discussed in this presentation. Furthermore, we also prepared various electrodes such as commercial SnO2 nanopowder, SnO2@C hollow spheres, SnO2@ Fe2O3@C solid spheres and the electrochemical performances will be compared. We believe that our studies might suggest the design strategy for the next-generation LIBs, and it can be applied to other SnO2-metal oxides composites.

Fig. 1 SEM images of (a) SnO2@Co3O4 hollow spheres and (b) SnO2@Fe2O3 hollow spheres.

Fig. 2 Cycling performance of SnO2, Co3O4/SnO2, and SnO2@Fe2O3@C hollow sphere electrodes.

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