A New Type of Reference Electrode for Three-Electrode Setups: Choice of Material and Geometry
Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) was already proposed in literature as a most promising candidate, showing a stable potential plateau at 1.55 V versus lithium, because of a two-phase equilibrium . This study compares LTO versus lithium metal and examines various geometries for reference electrodes by EIS measurements and FEM-simulations.
Our results recommend a reference electrode in a mesh-type design, centered between two separators, as most reliable in terms of symmetry. Furthermore, an aluminum mesh slurry coated by fine LTO particles delivered a stable potential over more than hundred hours, as proven by potential measurements.
Finally, the suitability of this new type of reference electrode is validated for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and C-rate tests.
 M. Ender, A. Weber, E. Ivers-Tiffée, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 159 (2012), A128-A136
 F. La Mantia, C.D. Wessells, H.D. Deshazer, Y. Cui, Electrochemistry Communication, 31 (2013), 141-144