Insight for Formation of Oxygen Deficiency in Spinel-Type LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-δ Using Ab Initio DFT Calculations

Tuesday, 26 May 2015: 09:20
Salon A-4 (Hilton Chicago)
H. Shiiba, N. Zettsu (Shinshu University, CREST, JST), M. Nakayama (Nagoya Institute of Technology), S. Oishi, and K. Teshima (Shinshu University)
Spinel-type LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) have attracted attention as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries due to its high-voltage at ~ 4.7 V vs. Li+/Li. LNMO is considered to belong to two different crystal structures such that Ni/Mn ordered P4332 and disordered Fd-3m. Relationship between crystal structures and their electrochemical performances has been experimentally- and computationally- investigated, showing that disordered Fd-3m structure contains oxygen deficiency with reduction of Mn from Mn4+ to Mn3+. Although the presence of Mn3+ improve electronic conductivity, Jahn-Teller distortion and dissolution of Mn occurs. Phase transition from disordered Fd-3m to ordered P4332 occurs with diminish oxygen deficiency by annealing in oxygen atmosphere at 700 ̊C. Understanding the formation mechanism of the oxygen deficiency would be helpful to synthesis aimed crystal structure. However, computational studies with oxygen deficient model are limited so far. In this study, we evaluate the defect formation energies in oxygen deficient LNMO.

The Vienna ab initio simulation package (VASP) was utilized with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA-PBEsol) + U and projector-augmented wave (PAW) methods. For the GGA + U calculations, the U values for the d-orbitals of Ni and Mn were set to 6.0 eV and 3.9 eV following relevant previous reports. An energy cutoff of 500 eV and a k-point mesh were chosen such that the product of the number of k-points and the number of atoms in the unit cell was greater than 1000.

In the case of disordered  Fd-3m structure, we used ‘uniform’ Ni/Mn distribution computationally reported by Lee et al., that is, the highest degree of local cation arrangements within random cation ordering. Coulombic energy was calculated for different 524 structures by Ewald method, the most stable Ni/Mn arrangement was consistent with ‘uniform’ distribution as mentioned above.

The calculated lowest oxygen vacancy formation energies in P4332 and Fd-3m show 3.69 eV and 3.38 eV, respectively. Note that vacancy formation energy almost no difference in P4332 among different oxygen vacancy concentrations, whereas, in Fd-3m, vacancy formation energy decreased with increasing oxygen vacancy concentrations. This fact strongly suggests that Fd-3m structure promotes oxygen deficiency. In addition, not only oxygen vacancies type defect but also metal-excess type defect can be present as oxygen defect models. Formation energies for the system contains excess metals in P4332 and Fd-3m lattice show 2.98 eV and 2.58 eV, respectively. Formation energy for metal excess type in Fd-3m became 0.40 eV smaller than that in P4332, in agreement with experimental results that only Fd-3m contains oxygen defects. In addition, these values are lower than oxygen vacancy formation energies. These all finding indicates that metal-excess type oxygen deficiency can be more favorable than oxygen vacancy type oxygen deficiency for LNMO.