(Plenary) Printed Electrochemical Instruments for Biosensors
This keynote presentation will focus on meeting these challenges using amperometric and votammetric systems printed on paper or plastic substrates to deliver inexpensive instruments for a wide range of electroanalytical applications. This approach combines the sophistication of advanced electrochemical biosensors with a simple manufacturing technique to create a use-and-throw instrument. The system is manufactured under ambient conditions. All interconnections are printed and an anisotropic conductive glue is used for interconnection between the chip and conductors. A screen-printed manganese dioxide battery and a vertical electrochromic display are incorporated in the instrument. The display is paper-like in the sense that it works in reflective mode, that is, no backlight is used to light up the pixels. This integrated biosensing platform forms a workhorse in our hands for a variety of diagnostic systems including enzyme electrodes for multi-parametric diabetes monitoring and for the management of chronic kidney disease, electrochemical sensors for enzymes such as G6-P or amylase (a marker for stress), label-free affinity sensors for cancer markers and heart disease, aptasensors for cancer cells, DNA Sensors and robust devices based on imprinted and smart polymers. Using these technologies, we envision over-the-counter paper instruments for self-diagnosis of common diseases such as diabetes, kidney disease and urinary tract infection; inexpensive devices for use by caregivers or paramedics such as the ”Stressometer” or heart attack indicators; home kits to support people after transplant surgery or cancer treatment; smart cartons for pharmaceuticals; pocket tests for allergens, food toxicity, drinking water etc.; and strips or patches that communicate with mobile telecommunications. Realisation of these paradigm-changing new products requires the effective harnessing of emerging technology, inspired vision from clinical partners or others “users” and leading-edge engineering to design and produce functional systems in appropriate volumes at the right cost.
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Turner, A.P.F., Beni, V., Gifford, R., Norberg, P., Arven, P., Nilsson, D., Åhlin, J., Nordlinder, S. and Gustafsson, G. (2014). Printed Paper- and Plastic-based Electrochemical Instruments for Biosensors. 24th Anniversary World Congress on Biosensors – Biosensors 2014,27-30 May 2014, Melbourne, Australia. Elsevier.
Karimian, N., Turner, A.P.F. Tiwari, A. (2014). Electrochemical evaluation of a protein-imprinted polymer receptor. Biosensors and Bioelectronics 59, 160-165.
Kashefi-Kheyrabadi, l., Mehrgardi, M.A., Wiechec, E., Turner, A.P.F. and Tiwari, A. (2014). Ultrasensitive detection of human liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepC2) cells using a label-free aptasensor. Analytical Chemistry 86, 4956-4960.
Parlak, O., Turner, A.P.F. and Tiwari, A. (2014). On/off-switchable zipper-like bioelectronics on a graphene interface. Advanced Materials 26, 482-486. DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303075
Sekretaryova, A., Vagin, M., Beni, V., Turner, A.P.F. and Karyakin, A. (2014). Unsubstituted Phenothiazine as a Superior Water-insoluble Mediator for Oxidases. Biosensors and Bioelectronics 53,275–282.
Shukla, S.K, Turner, A.P.F. and Tiwari, A. (2015). Cholesterol oxidase functionalised polyaniline/carbon nanotube hybrids for an amperometric biosensor. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 15, 3373-3377.