Sensitivity Analysis of an Electrochemical Model of Li-ion Batteries and Consequences on the Modeled Aging Mechanisms
The aging of a Li-ion battery is mainly due to a modification of its electrochemical properties which will lead to a loss of capacity (decrease of the autonomy) and an increase of its internal impedance (loss of power). A simplified electrochemical model has already been developed at IFP Energies Nouvelles taking into account the loss of cyclable lithium due to the growth of the Solid electrolyte Interphase (SEI) and the modification of the porosity of the graphite electrode as aging mechanisms. This model allows us to estimate the evolution of the performance (power and autonomy) of a Graphite/LiFePO4-based battery as if it was used on a typical hybrid or electric vehicle. In order to ensure the reliability of this model, a sensitivity analysis based on Zhang et al. work has been performed to find out the impact of the variation of each parameters on the model output (Voltage, Temperature) and determine the optimal testing conditions for this model calibration.
Moreover, the discrepancies observed during the validation of our properly calibrated model with experimental data highlighted an additional capacity loss due to another aging mechanism than SEI growth. According to our previous research and to the literature, we decided to add a mechanical stress based mechanism involving cracking into the electrode that leads to a loss of active materials or enhances the loss of lithium inventory. Therefore, specific experiments inducing stress during intercalation of lithium ions in the negative electrode have been carried out to gather data to identify parameters of the new mechanism added to our model. Afterwards, the behavior of this new aging model will be validated on dynamic PHEV duty profiles to ensure its good reliability.
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