(Invited) Measurement of the Energy-Band Relations of Stabilized Si Photoanodes Using Operando Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
We show that the holographic information contained in the shape and width of core level peaks allows for determination of the electrostatic potential of semiconductor junctions by X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results for transition metal oxide protected light absorbers for photoelectrochemical energy conversion are shown. Energy band alignments at the light absorber/protection layer interface and for light-absorber/protection-layer/catalyst stacks with and without contact with aqueous electrolytes are investigated; evaluations with respect to semiconductor band bending and interfacial dipole shifts are presented.
1. S. Hu et al., Science, 344, 1005–1009 (2014).
2. M. F. Lichterman et al., Energy Environ. Sci., 7, 3334–3337 (2014).
3. H. J. Lewerenz, in Photoelectrochemical Materials and Energy Conversion Processes, R. C. Alkire, D. M. Kolb, J. Lipkowski, and P. N. Ross, Editors, vol. 12, p. 61–181, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany (2010).
4. S. Axnanda et al., Meet. Abstr., MA2013-02, 921–921 (2013).
5. S. Axnanda et al., (2014), submitted.