Cyclic Voltammetry Studies of H-Bond Complex of a p-Phenylenediamine-Based Urea with 1,8-Naphthyridine As the Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Guest with Platinum and Glassy Carbon As Working Electrodes
In this study, cyclic voltammetry of U(H)H in the presence of 1,8-naphthyridine has been examined. The addition of naphthyridine results in an increase in current height and the appearance of a second oxidation wave at a more positive potentials . The increase in current is due to competition for the acidic proton between naphthyridine and the dimethylamino group of another U(H)H. NMR titration analysis show that naphthyridine H-bonds to the reduced U(H)H meaning naphthyridine blocks the H-bond sites from another U(H)H. Interestingly, the shape and behavior of the more positive oxidation wave alters depending on the electrode material. We hypothesize that the change in the CV wave is due to electrode fouling on the platinum (Pt) and poorly polished glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. With a carefully polished GC electrode, which minimizes the effect of electrode fouling, the observed second oxidation wave shifts slightly to more negative potentials and appears to merge with the first oxidation wave as the concentration of naphthyridine increases. This behavior reflects a mechanism that is similar to that of U(H)H by itself except the dimethylamino group of the other urea is replaced with naphthyridine. Therefore, the appearance of the second oxidation wave is due to oxidation of the H-bonding complex between the radical cation urea, U(H)H+, and naphthyridine, which is accompanied by proton transfer to naphthyridine.
1. Clare, L. A.; Pham A. T.; Magdaleno, F.; Acosta, J.; Woods, J. E.; Cooksy, A. L.; Smith, D. K. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2013, 135 (50), 18930–18941.