In the present talk, we show that it is possible to reconstruct both, anodes (graphite) and cathodes (NMC/NCA) from commercial cells (16Ah pouch/3.25Ah 18650-type) into 3-electrode full cells with an additional Li reference electrode (Figure (a)). With these 3-electrode cells, it is possible to measure the anode potentials vs. (Li/Li+) for all important combinations of operating parameters: (i) temperature, (ii) charging C-rate, and (iii) end-of-charge voltage. Data evaluation results in parameter sets which can exclude Li deposition on anodes (Figure (b)). The data extracted from the 3-electrode full cells are in agreement with long-term cycling tests and with Post-Mortem analysis of the original commercial cells. Furthermore, the data from the 3-electrode full cells allow to extend the cycle life of the original commercial cells significantly.
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