In this work, we report the synthesis, properties and photovoltaic performance of novel series of benzoporphyrins bearing two carboxyl anchoring groups through different П-linkers at their 23 and 24 positions. Palladium catalyzed double Heck reaction followed by electrocyclization/dehydrogenation strategy was used to obtain various 23, 24-functionalized benzoporphyrin from 2,3-dibromoporphyrin.4 The dyes bearing vinylene linkage and phenyl acetylene linkage at 23 and 24 position of benzoporphyrin displayed much broader and red shifted B and Q bands in UV-Vis absorption compared to its phenyl linker substituted derivative. Cyclic voltammetry results of all studied compounds confirms the thermodynamic feasiblity of electron injection from their excited states to the CB of TiO2 and regeneration of the resulting porphyrin radical cation by redox mediators. However, the photovoltaic performance of the cells sensitized with vinylene linker substituted benzoporphyrin showed highest power conversion efficiency with highest Jsc and Voc values. On the other hand the photovoltaic performance of the cells sensitized with phenyl linker substituted benzoporphyrin showed lowest power conversion efficiency in this series. Our results reflect light harvesting efficiency (LHE), length and flexibility of the linker and dye loading mainly determined the difference in power conversion efficiency in this series. DFT calculation provided support that the electron density distribution in frontier molecular orbitals of vinylene linker substituted benzoporphyrin and phenyl acetylene substituted benzoporphyrin could facilitate the electron injection to semiconductor compared to phenyl linker substituted benzoporphyrin.
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