Call for Abstracts

233rd ECS Meeting (May 13-17, 2018)

See the Call for Papers PDF for detailed information about the symposia, manuscript submission requirements, and financial assistance. Abstracts are due no later than Monday, 20 November 2017 at 11:59 PM Eastern Standard Time.

Steps and Instructions:

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  1. Begin a Submission

    Click the appropriate symposium title below to begin your submission. See the Call for Papers for detailed information about the symposia, manuscript submission requirements, and financial assistance.
  2. Symposium Selection

    Choose or change the appropriate symposium for your abstract. Do not make a double submission by submitting the same abstract to two different symposia.

    Students: Please note that if you wish to be considered for the General Student Poster Session competition, you must submit your abstract to the General Student Poster Session. Abstracts submitted to other symposia are not eligible for participation.

  3. Title

    Enter your title, preferred presentation format (oral, poster), copyright release, and any comments you might have for the organizers. Requested presentation formats cannot be guaranteed and are scheduled at the discretion of the Symposium Organizers.

    The title of your abstract should be in initial capital letters, not all caps: This Example is Prepared in Initial Capital Letters and Is Correct. THIS EXAMPLE IS IN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS AND IS NOT CORRECT.

  4. Authors

    CAREFULLY enter author name, affiliation, and contact information (email and phone). Author information (including ordering) will be published exactly as you enter it into the system and cannot be changed after the abstract submission deadline date of Monday, 20 November 2017.
  5. Abstract Text

    The length of your abstract text must be 750 words or less. DO NOT include the abstract title and author name(s) in your abstract text. This information will be appended to your abstract after the submission has been successfully completed. No file upload is needed for your text, you may enter it directly into the website or paste it in from an external source. You may also upload one separate image file containing any necessary figures/tables/equations.
  6. Confirmation

    You must confirm that ALL information is correct as submitted. All information will be published exactly as you entered it into the system, and cannot be changed after the Abstract Submission Deadline.
  7. General Instructions

    Presenting authors will be automatically informed of the unique ID numbers and passwords assigned to their abstracts. Abstracts may be viewed and modified at any time between submission and the deadline date of 20 November 2017, using the assigned ID# and password.

  8. Technical Support

    For help in submitting an abstract online, email Tech Support.

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A01 - Battery and Energy Technology Joint General Session

Papers are solicited on the fundamental and applied aspects of energy storage and conversion not covered by the other symposia in the Battery and Energy Technology Divisions. Of particular interest are new materials chemistries, materials structures, novel device designs, new insights from modeling and simulations, and performance studies. Energy storage and conversion systems include, but are not limited to, batteries, low-temperature fuel cells, and supercapacitors.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

A02 - Large-Scale Energy Storage 9

Electrical energy storage is critical for supporting the integration of renewable energy sources (e.g., wind and solar) and increasing the capacity and reliability of the future electricity grid. Electrochemical energy storage systems have the potential to fulfill this need. This symposium seeks oral and poster presentations on advances in materials, technology and designs, results of performance demonstrations, and economics analysis. The technologies of interest include redox-flow battery systems, metal-air rechargeable batteries, electrolyzers, capacitors, and other rechargeable electrochemical energy storage systems that have the potential to meet the cost and efficiency requirements of large-scale deployment.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

A03 - Li-ion Batteries and Beyond

Lithium ion batteries are the workhorses of portable electronics, power tools, electric drive vehicles, and grid scale renewable energy storage systems. The demands for higher energy density and power capability in these applications continue to fuel the research of battery technologies. In addition, safety and longer cycle life (toward 3000 cycles) for the new generation lithium have become increasingly more important. This symposium welcomes reports on new advancements in concepts, materials, and cell/module/pack designs to advance lithium ion battery technology and beyond, including lithium-oxygen, lithium-sulfur, sodium ion, and multivalent-based chemistries. Authors with papers on redox flow batteries are encouraged to submit to A02, Large-Scale Energy Storage 9.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

A04 - Materials Recycling for Energy Conversion and Storage

Every year, waste from billions of small and large primary and secondary batteries, over a wide range of chemistries, makes its way into landfills across the world. In primary batteries, active materials are mostly depleted and the desire for collection and recycle is driven by environmental factors. Secondary batteries may retain as much as 80% of their useful capacity, and it can be advantageous to recover this material to use as a feedstock for new cells. In energy conversion devices, like fuel cells and electrolyzers, very high cost electrode and electrolyte materials are used, and collection and reuse has the potential to significantly reduce lifetime costs. The issue of recycling is already an important one, and the need for solutions in this area will only be amplified as vehicle electrification increases The variety of possible chemistries and form factors complicates both reuse and recycling. Existing recycling approaches are expensive and only recover a subset of metals, polymers, and support materials. In some instances, it will be desirable to capture valuable intact components. In others, processing and extraction of active and spent materials from so-called “black mass” will be fruitful. This symposium will focus on both fundamental and applied aspects of active and inactive material recycling in commercial electrochemical cells including both primary and secondary batteries as well as fuel cells and electrolyzers. Abstracts that focus on new processes or chemistries, low-cost methods to assess suitability for reuse, as well as economic, regulatory, safety, or institutional issues impacting reuse and recycling are encouraged.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.


B01 - Carbon Nanostructures for Energy Conversion and Storage

Papers are invited in the following areas related to energy conversion and storage using nanocarbons: synthesis and characterization of relevant nanoparticles and nanostructures; functionalization with chromophores; inducing chemical reactions with strong photon-molecule coupling fields; size and shape dependent photocatalytic properties; photochemical solar cells; and photocatalysis and electron transfer studies relevant to energy conversion and storage.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

B02 - Carbon Nanostructures in Medicine and Biology

Original papers are solicited on all aspects of biological, pharmaceutical, biotechnological, and medical applications of fullerenes, metallofullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and related nanocarbons.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

B03 - Carbon Nanotubes - From Fundamentals to Devices

Papers are solicited on experimental and theoretical studies related to the basic chemistry, physics, and materials science of carbon nanotubes, as well as on novel nanotube applications in areas such as electronic devices, sensors, and materials development.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

B04 - International Symposium on Nanomaterials: Focus - Korea

This focused mega-symposium is dedicated to cover science and applications in nanocarbons and other nanoscale materials and presents the contemporary state-of-the-art of this field in Korea. Primary goal of this meeting is to share the most recent results and promote USA-Korea scientific cooperation efforts. Papers are solicited on experimental and theoretical studies related to the basic chemistry, physics, materials science and engineering of nanocarbons, fullerenes, porphyrins, supramolecular, inorganic-organic hybrid and functional materials, nanotubes, graphene and 2D layered materials, as well as on their novel applications in areas such as energy and catalytic conversion, sensors, medicine and biology, electronic and photonic devices, and materials development.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

B05 - Fullerenes - Endohedral Fullerenes and Molecular Carbon

Original papers are invited in all areas of fullerene and molecular carbon sciences, including: endohedral and/or exohedral functionalizations, characterizations, electrochemistry, photochemistry, photophysics, electron-transfer chemistry, photoelectrochemistry, applications in energy conversion, energy storage, catalysis, sensor etc., and theoretical studies
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

B06 - 2D Layered Materials from Fundamental Science to Applications

The ability to create and manipulate atomic-layer thick materials, commonly known as two-dimensional layered materials (2DLMs) is expected to transform material science and derivative technology. This symposium focuses on the synthesis, chemical and physical characterization, functionalization, manipulation, metrology and applications of 2DLMs and their nanostructures. This symposium will embrace sessions on classical 2D materials such as graphene, BN, metal dichalcogenides, other emerging 2D materials (e.g., silicenes, phosphorenes, etc.). Papers dealing with optical, electronic, and electrochemical applications of such 2DLMs and their composites are welcomed.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

B07 - Inorganic/Organic Nanohybrids for Energy Conversion

Metal, semiconductor, and organic nanoparticles and nanostructures play important roles in fuel cells, solar energy conversion, catalysis, and hydrogen production. Recent advances in the area of inorganic/organic hybrid nanostructures and nanomaterials have led to new understanding of their catalytic and photoelectrochemical properties. Submissions are encouraged on the following topics: For example, optically functional nanostructures, which can collect and localize photon energy into an ultra-small space, can efficiently excite molecules using an extremely low number of photons. Papers are invited in the following areas: synthesis and characterization of metal, semiconductor, and organic nanoparticles and nanostructures; their functionalization with chromophores, ; strong photon-molecule coupling fields for chemical reactions, ; bimetallic particle and semiconductor metal composites; size-dependent catalytic properties; hydrogen evolution and carbon dioxide reduction; photochemical, photoelectrochemical, and photovoltaic solar cells and devices; and photocatalysis and electron and energy transfer processes that are relevant to energy conversions; the functions of π-electron systems deviated from their thermodynamically stable states by applying multiple physical and mechanical stimuli to π-electronic molecules and their assemblies (π-System Figuration).
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

B08 - Porphyrins, Phthalocyanines, and Supramolecular Assemblies

This symposium will highlight recent advances in porphyrins, phthalocyanines, and their supramolecular assemblies. A wide range of topics will be covered in order to generate interdisciplinary discussions between participants and encourage the exchange of new ideas. We therefore solicit high quality contributions in areas ranging from the synthesis of challenging porphyrin- and phthalocyanine-based devices to the characterization of electrochemical and physicochemical behavior of new porphyrin and phthalocyanine materials. Submissions are encouraged on the following topics: (1) new challenging multi-porphyrin and phthalocyanine devices; (2) electronic properties of porphyrin and phthalocyanine arrays; (3) photoinduced processes in molecular and supramolecular porphyrin and phthalocyanine assemblies; and (4) novel porphyrin- and and phthalocyanine-modified electrodes.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

B09 - Engineering Carbon Hybrids - Carbon Electronics 3

This symposium brings together a new community of carbon experts that does not see carbon-nanotubes or fullerenes in isolation but considers the construction of 3D carbon devices integrating one, two or more carbon allotropes as the application might demand. We are looking at Carbon in a holistic way in which different carbon allotropes, manufactured by different methods, are combined with each other in hybrid carbon functional devices. Carbon, in many respects, is starting to challenge Si as the most important technological material. Besides the prominence of fullerenes, graphite, graphene and carbon nano tubes, glassy carbon 3D MEMS and NEMS-like devices are now being made by patterning polymeric precursors and carbonizing them. Other carbon allotropes like diamond, diamond–like carbon and amorphous carbon also are being studied intensively, allotrope by allotrope. Thus the carbon allotropes, and most importantly the interfaces between them, have to be mastered to make the best devices in a number of applications such as batteries, fuel cells, MOS electronics, lab-on-a-chip, high speed switches and sensors, to name a few. This symposium welcomes innovative work and insights on the modeling, analysis, fabrication and applications of functional hybrid carbon structures and devices.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.


C01 - Corrosion General Session

Oral and poster presentations concerning all aspects of corrosion and associated phenomena in liquid and gaseous phases are welcome. Theoretical analyses, experimental investigations, descriptions of new techniques for the study of corrosion, and analyses of corrosion products and films are of interest.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

C02 - High Temperature Corrosion and Materials Chemistry 13

This symposium will focus on the fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of high temperature oxidation and corrosion, as well as other chemical reactions involving inorganic materials at high temperatures. Both theoretical, experimental and industrial papers are encouraged. Specifically, contributions on the following topics in the area of oxidation/corrosion are solicited: (1.) fundamental mechanisms of high temperature oxidation; (2.) reactions in complex environments and/or ultra-high temperatures (>1500°C); and, (3.) response of protective coatings in high temperature environments. In the area of high temperature chemistry, papers on the following topics are solicited: (4.) thermodynamic property determination; (5.) phase equilibria and phase transformations; (6.) solid state diffusion; and, (7.) volatilization reactions. Fundamental studies of materials interactions in high temperature processing or power, propulsion, and energy applications are welcome.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.


D01 - Nanoscale Luminescent Materials 5

This symposium – the fifth in a bi-annual series – will focus on those characteristics of nanoscale materials that relate to their luminescence properties. Relevant topics include: effects of quantum confinement, the role of surface states, loss mechanisms, methods to improve luminescence efficiency, bulk vs. nanoparticle luminescence, and the role of phonons in nanomaterials. Presentations at this meeting will cover: (1.) basic physical properties of luminescent nano-materials including insulators, semiconductors, organics, and polymers; (2.) nanophosphors for biophotonics and biomarkers; (3.) nanoparticles for light emitting diodes and next generation lighting applications; (4.) luminescent properties of fabricated nano-structures (nanowires, nanorods, nanodots, etc.); and (5.) nanophosphors for traditional phosphor applications such as X-ray and scintillator phosphors, phosphors for VUV excitation, and persistent phosphors. Presentations should involve the physics, chemistry, and/or engineering of these materials. Selected abstracts will be also chosen by the organizers for longer invited talks.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

D02 - Plasma and Thermal Processes for Materials Modification, Synthesis, and Processing 2

CVD, plasma-enhanced CVD, etching and related techniques have enjoyed extensive success in microelectronics processing. These techniques have also been applied to the synthesis and production of nanostructured elemental and compound semiconductor materials (Si, Ge, (ZnO, Zn3P2, Zn4Sb3, GaN, InN, GaSb and many others) for electronics, optoelectronics, sensors, photovoltaics and thermoelectrics. Nanowires, nanotubes, QDOTs and 2-D materials, have also been employed in MEMS, artifact restoration and surface treatments in health care. The topics for this symposium include, but are not limited to the above mentioned processes and applications as well as surface functionalization, photoresist removal, atomic layer etching, difficult to etch materials, decontamination, pollution abatement, and displays. Papers focusing on material growth or etch mechanisms, modeling, reactor design, process diagnostics, materials characterization, and advances in novel applications are strongly encouraged.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.


E01 - Electrodeposition of Micro and Nano Materials for Batteries and Sensors

This symposium will cover advances in electrochemical deposition (electrolytic, electroless, chemical bath or electrochemical ALD) for energy storage materials and devices. The electronics industry has demonstrated electrochemical processing at micro and nano dimensions for interconnect, barrier layer, magnetics and solder applications for metals, alloys and composites. A large number of relevant energy storage materials can also be deposited, structured and post-processed electrochemically for use in advanced batteries.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

E02 - Surfactant and Additive Effects on Thin Film Deposition, Dissolution, and Particle Growth

The influence of surfactants and additives on the morphology and structure of materials produced by either physical or chemical means is of central importance to several evolving technologies ranging from electroplating thin functional films to battery reactions to nanoparticle synthesis. This symposium seeks to bring together researchers interested in exploring the synergies between adsorbate effects during deposition and dissolution by electrolytic, chemical reduction, CVD, ALD, or PVD methods. In the last decade significant capabilities for investigating the potential dependent structure and dynamics of adsorbates on single crystal surface have been established. Likewise, the impact of adsorbed anions, cations, upd metal species, and/or molecules on the production of metal and semiconductor films and particles has been widely reported. Taking advantage of this diverse background we will explore several questions of common interest such as: (1) What is the nature of the relationship between adsorbate structure and the evolution of particle shape or facet geometry during deposition and dissolution? (2) What is the extent of rate differentiation accessible by using different surfactants? (3) How much anisotropy can be induced in electrocrystallization reactions by using different adsorbates? (4) How do changes in potential and related perturbations affect adsorbate structure and thereby film and particle growth dynamics? (5) How is particle growth influenced by the choice of reducing agent and surfactant(s), and how does this compare to electrolytic growth at comparable potentials? (6)How does the rate of deposition and stripping affect the morphology of thin films (7) How is roughness evolution influenced by surfactants? (8) How effectively do surfactants remain segregated at growing interfaces? (9) Why do some surfactants or additives lead to the breakdown of epitaxial growth and how are they incorporated in the growing solid? (10) How do surfactants influence the deposition of alloys and compounds? (11) How can surfactants be used to influence the growth of deposits with graded multiscale porosity? (12) Can dendritic growth be tamed by additives? New approaches and measurements related to the study of surfactant and additive effects are also of interest.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.


F01 - Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering General Session

Papers are solicited in areas of industrial electrochemistry and electrochemical engineering that are not covered by other symposia at this meeting. Of particular interest are papers concerning: design, operation, testing, and/or modeling of industrial electrochemical systems; electrochemical waste treatment technologies; methods for electrosynthesis; electrolytic recovery of process materials; new electrode materials; new electrochemical cell designs; and electrocatalysis. Presentations on industrially significant areas, such as chlor-alkali and fluorine production; manufacture of aluminum and other metals; the use of electrochemical methods in pulp and paper bleaching; and generation of environmentally-friendly bleaching chemicals and other active oxidants are also encouraged. Papers may contain both theoretical and experimental work, and papers dealing with either area will be considered.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

F02 - Multiscale Modeling, Simulation and Design – From Conventional Methods to the Latest in Data Science

Future trends in electrochemical engineering will be influenced by the need to control processes and insure quality at the molecular scale. Transfer of molecular-scale understanding and discoveries into new and improved products and processes requires integration of system behavior across a range of length and time-scales. New engineering approaches are needed that couple traditional current-and potential-distribution approaches to molecular-scale events in order to accurately describe and design systems to meet the needs of the next century. For example, such an approach will open the way to exploiting self-assembly during processing. This symposium focuses on the role of molecularly coupled electrochemical engineering in addressing future technology challenges. Topics include: (1.) experimental and theoretical methods for understanding and describing behavior in electrochemical systems at the molecular level; (2.) new engineering methods and simulation algorithms with improved computational efficiency and quantification of uncertainty that enable coupling to molecular-scale processes for the design, control and optimization of entire, realistic systems, including those where stochastic events influence quality; (3.) fast, robust, data-enabled simulation for the control and design of processes and products; (4.) use of molecular understanding, design and/or control, in conjunction with models and data, to address 21st century electrochemical engineering applications such as NEMS, MEMS, and electronic device fabrication; systems and materials for stationary power (from photovoltaic systems and fuel cells to energy storage devices and hydrogen generation); power systems for transportation; electrochemically enabled devices, systems, and products for medical technology; and corrosion systems, among many others. Both fundamental and applied papers that address the symposium topics are encouraged. The symposium may also include a few invited speakers who will give historical and future perspectives of the underlying science in various fields and its anticipated implementation in technology.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

F03 - High Rate Metal Dissolution Processes 3

High rate metal dissolution processes are widely employed in the aerospace, medical, energy, automotive, electronics and other industries for manufacturing operations ranging from machining and shaping of large parts to micro fabrication of complicated features for small devices. These processes include electrochemical polishing, electrochemical through-mask etching, chemical through-mask etching, electrochemical deburring, electrochemical radiusing and electrochemical machining. Due to the non-contact nature of these processes, the metal surfaces are not subjected to mechanical and/or thermal damage. Consequently, these processes will continue to play an ever increasing role in surface finishing of advanced metallic components with complex geometries. In addition to invited contributions, contributions are solicited in the areas of 1) Electrodissolution Fundamentals, 2) Localized Dissolution, 3) Chemical Etching, 4) Microfabrication, Machining, Finishing and 5) Environmental Issues, Electrolyte Maintenance, Recovery of Metals and Minimization of Water Usage. Materials of interest include but are not limited to steels, nickel alloys, titanium alloys, titanium, niobium, molybdenum, tantalum and other materials of industrial importance. Finally, papers are solicited relating to surface finishing applications for parts fabricated using 3-D additive manufacturing processes such as direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) and electron beam melting (EBM).
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

F04 - Electrochemical Engineering: Integration of Distributed Energy Systems

Electrochemical energy storage systems can be readily sized to meet the electrical needs for a variety of applications, from residential to commercial to grid scale. However, the energy and power requirements change for each application. For example, commercial peak shaving applications may benefit from high power/low energy solutions, while load shifting at the grid scale will benefit from systems with high energy for longer-duration loads. Papers are requested that address the challenges facing electrochemical energy conversion systems at scales suitable for distributed energy storage (i.e. up to 50 kWh for residential, or up to 1MWh for commercial applications). Applications could include stand-alone distributed energy systems for micro-grids, or integrated storage with existing energy systems. Topics could include technical barriers to system development, issues related to durability for different load profiles, or policy discussions related to adoption of electrochemical energy storage systems.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.


G01 - Silicon Compatible Materials, Processes, and Technologies for Advanced Integrated Circuits and Emerging Applications 8

This symposium will focus on emerging materials, processes and technologies that can be applied to large area silicon wafers either to enhance the performance of analog and digital integrated circuits or to enable revolutionary device structures with entirely new functionalities. Topics of particular interest include: 1) Materials and processes needed to realize advanced transistor structures (including FinFET, Ultrathin body SOI and nanowires) with high mobility channels based on either strain engineering or emerging high-mobility channel materials such as strained Si, SiGe, Ge and III-V based channel materials that can be synthesized on large area silicon wafers by epitaxial or other innovative methods. Papers focusing on synthesis of the new channel materials as well as processes that are essential for the realization of successful device structures are of particular interest. Examples include high performance gate stacks, low-resistivity contacts, source/drain epitaxy for strain and junction formation, reactive ion etching, wet processing and CVD/ALD deposition techniques. The symposium also invites abstracts on new materials and processes for 3-D (TSV) integration, and for GaN power devices, etc. 2) Materials and processes needed to fabricate Si compatible Tunnel FETs (TFETs) or other approaches to realize devices with Sub-threshold Slope <60 mV/decade. This could include TFETs realized by band gap engineered III-V or Si/SiGe based heterostructures in Nanowire/FinFET/Planar device architectures 3) Synthesis of nano-structures including wires, pores and membranes of silicon compatible materials as well as novel MEMS/NEMS structures and their integration with the mainstream silicon integrated circuit technology. Abstracts on applications of these new devices in all relevant fields including electronics, optics are welcome. 4) New technologies and equipment for synthesis and characterization of the materials and processes listed above.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.


H01 - Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Materials and Devices 19

This symposium will focus on issues pertinent to the development of wide-bandgap and other compound semiconductor materials and devices. All semiconductor materials are of interest, including traditional III-V materials, III-nitrides, II-oxides, SiC, diamond, II-VI, inorganic compound semiconductors, and other emerging materials. Papers on both practical and fundamental issues are solicited. The following technical areas are of particular interest: (1) emitters: light emitting diodes, light emitting transistors, laser diodes, displays, and devices for solid state lighting; (2) detectors: including solar cells and avalanche photodiodes; (3) high temperature, high power, and high frequency electronics; (4) sensor applications; (5) substrates for material epitaxy; (6) material characterization: synthesis, defect structure and luminescence; (7) nanoscale materials; (8) transparent conducting oxide films and devices, including ZnO and IGZO thin film transistors. The goal of this symposium is to bring together the crystal growth, material processing, circuit design, process monitoring, reliability, and device application communities to review current issues and present state of the art developments in wide-bandgap and compound semiconductor technology. This symposium will consist of invited and contributed papers and posters.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

H02 - Advanced CMOS-Compatible Semiconductor Devices 18

The scope of this symposium includes: (1) More-Moore technology contributing to the semiconductor industry, including: (a) CMOS compatible device, circuits and applications, not limited to SOI; scaled devices, and simulations; junctionless FET, multi-gate devices (double gate, FinFET, triple gate, nanowire); high-power devices, semiconductor sensors, Tunnel-FET devices and memory devices; (b) Device physics and process technology using new materials/noise issues of devices and circuits; (c) Space applications, including low-temperature electronics and radiation hardness. (2) More-than-Moore technology, including (a) new MEMS applications, (b) carbon-nanotube device applications and (c) others.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

H03 - Solid-state Electronics and Photonics in Biology and Medicine 5

This symposium aims to researches utilizing the unique electronic and photonic properties of solid-state materials and devices to facilitate the understanding of biomolecular interactions, to study the integration of biomolecules and solid-state materials, and to promote the applications of solid-state devices in biology and in medicine. Topics of interest are categorized in two major parts: Solid-state electronic and photonic sensors, and biomolecualr electronics and photonics. Papers are solicited in the following areas, but not limited to: (1) Interaction between nanostructured materials (nano particles, nanowire, or graphene) and biomolecules (DNA, RNA, peptide, protein, metabolic molecules); (2) Solid-state electronic or photonic sensor design and fabrication; (3) Surface modification and immobilization techniques; (4) Sensor characterization techniques; (5) Sensor models and signal analysis; (6) Integrated sensor network and systems; (7) Various sensor types: Field-effect-transistors, diodes, resistors, nano particles, surface plasma resonance, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, surface acoustic wave devices, and quartz crystal microbalance; (8) Multiple sensor arrays; (9) Portable bioelectronic system for medical applications (detection, separation, purification, therapy, and image); (10) Single molecule and single cell detection; (11) DNA sequencing; (12)Inter- and intra-biomolecular interactions studied with biosensors; (13)Electrokinetics in micro- or nanofluidic System and its applications; (14)Biomolecular nanodevices; (15) Nanopore and nanoslit bioelectronics; (16) Electric field effect on biomolecules and cells; (17) Electroporation; (18) Biomolecular devices for energy harvest; etc.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

H04 - Wearable and Flexible Electronic and Photonic Technologies

This symposium will present the latest advancements in the fundamental science and technological developments in wearable and flexible electronic and photonic technologies. With the advent of connected living, health and communication, and its proliferation to the development of the internet of things, wearable devices are a critical technology. Underlying advancements in wearable and flexible electronic and photonic technologies, are materials science of new and alternative materials and methods of coating and deposition, characterization of flexible and transparent or plastic electronic devices, the electronics behind new sensor development for wearables and flexible technology, and new device design concepts. This symposium will address all aspects of wearable and flexible devices technology, from materials through working prototypes and provide a leading international forum for the most exciting developments in the fundamental science and device engineering of next-generation electronics and photonics for a whole range of applications. This symposium will consist of invited and contributed papers, a dedicated poster session and incorporate and Best Paper award for a student oral presentation.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.


I01 - State of the Art Tutorial in Low Temperature Fuel Cell Electrocatalysis: The Challenge of High Current Density Performance at Low Platinum Loading

This invited-only symposium will feature tutorial talks to provide the general audience an overview of a variety of aspects related towards understanding and overcoming the issues with achieving high current densities with low platinum loadings in polymer-electrolyte fuel cells. This is one of the most pressing topics in fuel cell commercialization. Topics of interest include but are not limited to: (1) ab-initio catalyst and catalyst interface studies, (2) thin-film ion-conducting membrane characterization and visualization, (3) novel diagnostic methods for exploring limiting phenomena, (4) design of catalyst layers and architectures that overcome limitations, (5) novel low platinum group metal catalysts that can achieve high current performance including alloys, (6) multiscale modeling of relevant processes, (7) contamination and durability aspects with low loadings, (8) catalyst/support/ionomer interactions; (9) nanostructured electrodes, (10) new catalyst and catalyst-layer characterization methods, and (11) computational chemistry.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

I02 - Electrosynthesis of Fuels 5

Sustainable economic growth and high quality of life require an abundant supply of clean and affordable energy. Future energy sources include solar, wind, and nuclear energy - all of which can produce electricity as the primary form of energy. The conversion of this electrical energy to fuels (e.g. hydrocarbon or hydrogen), using common chemicals such as carbon dioxide and water through electrochemical processes, provides an opportunity to remove the temporal variation in the energy supply from solar and wind energy. Electrochemical processes for fuel synthesis may involve protons, hydroxide, oxide or other ions. This symposium will provide an international forum for the presentation and discussion of the latest developments on electrochemical production of fuels and other products, and related topics. The emphasis of this symposium is on recent advances relevant to the electrochemical conversion and utilization of CO2 and/or H2O for synthesis of fuels and other chemicals. The application of fuel cell-type conversion cells is of special interest, because reversible cells that may be coupled with renewable or nuclear electric power production in order to increase efficiency through energy storage are of particular importance. Papers are solicited on the topics as follows: 1 Materials for electrochemical conversion cells including electrolytes, electrodes, seals, and interconnects for the conversion of CO2 and H2O to fuels. 2. Electrochemical performance and stability of electrochemical conversion cells, and other relevant cells. 3. Electrocatalytic phenomena in electrodes converting starting materials to fuels and other products. 4. Photoelectrochemical approaches for conversion of CO2 and/or H2O. 5. Electrochemical and chemical technologies for CO2 separation. 6. Novel materials or concepts for CO2 conversion and capture.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

I03 - Oxygen or Hydrogen Evolution Catalysis for Water Electrolysis 4

Water electrolysis represents a clean and sustainable approach to producing hydrogen. However, the cost of hydrogen production from this process is still prohibitive due to significant electricity consumption and materials cost. High-efficient electrocatalysts for either oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) may enable to lower the over-potential of electrochemical reactions so as to improve the overall energy efficiency of water electrolysis. The development of advanced catalysts may also help to reduce the loading of precious metal catalysts or to replace them with non-precious metal catalysts. This Symposium seeks novel or advanced water electrolysis catalysts that include but are not limited to the following categories: 1) catalyst supports with extremely high corrosion resistance (>1.5V vs. SHE); 2) OER catalysts for proton exchange membrane (PEM) based electrolysis; 3) OER catalysts for anion exchange membrane (AEM) based electrolysis; 3) HER catalysts for AEM electrolysis; 4) bi-functional ORR/OER catalysts; 5) bi-functional HOR/HER catalysts; 6) electrolysis catalyst degradation studies; 7) electrolysis catalyst modeling; 8) electrocatalysts for artificial photosynthesis or photo-electrochemical cells; 9) others.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

I04 - Materials for Low Temperature Electrochemical Systems 4

Materials development is critical to the commercialization of electrochemical technologies including batteries, alkaline and proton exchange membrane fuel cells, electrolyzers, supercapacitors and other electrochemical applications/devices. This symposium will focus on both the fundamental and applied aspects of the materials for low temperature electrochemical technologies. Topics of interest include, but are not restricted to: (1) Experimental methods for membrane/ionomer design, synthesis, characterization and evaluation; (2) Modeling for guiding membrane materials development and for the prediction of membrane material properties; (3) Electrocatalyst design, synthesis, characterization and performance/durability evaluation for fuel cells, metal-air batteries, etc. (4) Design, characterization and evaluation of active materials for batteries and supercapacitors; (4) Electrolytes and separators for batteries.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

I05 - Renewable Fuels via Artificial Photosynthesis or Heterocatalysis 3

This symposium will provide an international and interdisciplinary forum to present the latest research on production of fuels (e.g., hydrogen or other gas/liquid hydrocarbon fuels) by solar energy or electrical energy. Topics of interest include but not limited to: (1) utilization of renewable energy resources such as water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen or biomass for generation of fuels such as hydrogen, ammonia and hydrocarbon compounds; (2) generation of fuels with photocatalysts or photoelectrochemical cells (PECs); (3) generation of fuels with electrocatalysts; (4) Sunlight-driven production of bio-fuels and bio-hydrogen with enzymes and photoautotrophic microorganisms; (5) synthesis and characterization of photocatalysts or electrocatalysts; (6) exploration of new materials for solar energy conversion; (7) generation of fuels with solar-thermal processes; and (8) simulation and modeling of materials, devices, and systems for solar energy conversion.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

I06 - Mechano-Electro-Chemical Coupling in Energy Related Materials and Devices 3

Significant coupling often exists between the electrical, chemical and mechanical responses of the materials used for batteries, fuel cells, chemical separators, and other high performance energy conversion/storage devices. In these systems, electrochemical reactions affect stress evolution, deformation, and fracture. Similarly, stress evolution, deformation, and fracture can also affect electrochemical properties, device performance, and durability. This symposium will provide a forum for the presentation of original research concerned with the interplay between mechanics and electrochemistry. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, experimental and/or modeling studies of: a) the effect of stress and strain on: the surface and bulk atomic structure of electrochemically active materials; the defect thermodynamics (point defect concentrations, chemical expansion coefficients, etc.) of electrochemically active materials; diffusion kinetics (diffusion coefficients, surface exchange coefficients, etc.); catalytic activity; the electronic structure of electrochemically active materials; reaction pathways; phase transformations (phase-boundary shifting, ferroelastic domain switching, strain-induced self-assembly, etc.) in electrochemically active materials; the microstructural evolution of electrochemically active materials; and the performance and durability of electrochemically active materials and devices. b) stress, strain, and/or fracture resulting from: electrochemical insertion; intercalation; phase transformations; electrode reactions; and other electrochemical processes and/or device operation; c) new approaches to understand, model and and/or control mechano-chemical coupling and/or degradation in electrochemical systems; d) novel in-situ and ex-situ characterization tools; e) electrochemical actuation based on Faradaic and non-Faradaic interactions f) mesoscale perspective on mechano-electrochemical interplay.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

I07 - Energy Conversion Systems Based on Nitrogen

Ammonia and hydrazine have attracted increasing attention and study as promising fuels or energy carriers. Significant R&D effort is ongoing in the field to commercialize efficient and safe as fuels for energy conversion. In this symposium, the following topics are of interest (1) Using electrical energy to reduce N2 direct to NH3 (2) electrochemical decomposition of NH3 to produce H2 (3) direct carbon-free (e.g, NH3, N2H2) fuel cells (4) electrochemically promoted biomass conversion
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.


K01 - 13th Manual M. Baizer Memorial Symposium on Organic Electrochemistry

This symposium honors the 2018 winner of the Manual M. Baizer Award in Organic Electrochemistry. Submissions are invited in all areas of synthetic and mechanistic electrochemistry.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

K02 - Nature-Inspired Electrochemical Systems 3

In recent years, engineers and scientists have taken inspiration from the natural world to design new materials, algorithms and devices. Several successes have been realized in the fields of mathematics, robotics, polymer synthesis, new heterogeneous catalysts, etc. Some specific examples include the development of advanced algorithms that were able to predict Newton’s laws of motion from experimental data, synthesis of polystyrene in plants, catalyst for solar fuel conversion, and the emergence of microbial fuel cells that have good potential for industrial wastewater treatment applications. However, the realization of similar advances for electrodes, electrolytes and cell architecture have been slow and a concerted effort in this area has the potential to have a broad societal impact as electrochemical devices are expected play key roles in energy conversion and storage in the 21st century. This symposium will focus on the invention and recent advances in electrochemically relevant materials and systems. Areas of interest include: 1) the use of biological agents to control the growth, size, shape or function of electrodes or electrolytes; 2) electrodes and electrolytes whose structure or function seek to mimic a naturally-occurring system; 3) devices that utilize electrochemical processes to mimic or re-create a microhabitat or naturally occurring system; 4) in-vivo or in-vitro use of electrochemical devices to treat disease or control of cells for disinfection/sterilization; 5) direct use of biological materials in electrochemical devices as electrodes/electrolytes or promoters of electrochemical processes and 6) use of biological materials and harnessing/mimicking micro-scale diffusional environments for self-powered medical devices and/or medical sensor platforms.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

K03 - Oxidation and Reduction: Exploring Electron Transfer Reactions in Chemistry and Biology

The goal of this symposium is to bring together chemists studying electron-transfer reactions and methods using a variety of chemical, photochemical, and electrochemical techniques. Problems to be discussed will range from the development of new synthetic methods to the exploration of biological systems using electron-transfer based analytical tools. The goal will be to illustrate the common thinking that unifies the seemingly diverse areas of science that rely on the transfer of electrons.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.


L01 - Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry, Electrocatalysis, and Photoelectrochemistry General Session

This symposium address all aspects of physical and analytical electrochemistry from fundamentals to new practical applications. The symposium invites papers on new theoretical and experimental approaches that may lead to improved merits of analytical techniques as well as papers concerning any aspect of physical electrochemistry.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

L02 - Electrocatalysis 9: Symposium in Honor of Radoslav Adzic

In honor of Radoslav Adzic’s retirement after more than five decades of research in electrocatalysis, this symposium is organized to celebrate his great achievements. The symposium will be focused on all areas of fundamental and applied electrocatalysis. Topics include but not limited to oxygen reduction and evolution, hydrogen oxidation and evolution, CO2 reduction, small organic molecule oxidation, underpotential deposition, electrochemical deposition, electrochemical spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman, XAS, etc.), fuel cells, photoelectrocatalysis, electrocatalyst synthesis and characterization, theoretical modeling and simulation electrocatalysis process.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

L03 - Biological Fuel Cells 8

The ability of biological species to facilitate the conversion of chemical and photochemical energy to electricity has inspired a growing field of bioelectrochemical energy research. This symposium will focus on fundamental and applied aspects of fuel cell and battery technology that incorporate enzymes, microbes, or other biological species as catalysts, fuel sources, transport agents, or other such roles. Of interest are fundamental studies focusing on heterogeneous electron transfer coupled with oxidation or reduction reactions, including direct or mediated electron transfer between electrodes and enzymes, organelles, or microbes; catalysis at electrode supported membranes, electrode modification chemistries for immobilization or stabilization of electrochemically addressable catalytic moieties, and engineered electrode systems facilitating mass transfer of fuels and wastes. Papers addressing practical issues of electrode reaction rate, operating potential, and electrode stability are welcome, as is work toward developing mechanistic and system-level models that elucidate aspects of biological fuel cells. Strategies aimed at utilization of biological materials in fuel cells for portable power, waste elimination, ambient power, or other novel applications are appropriate for this symposium. The goal is to bring together a multidisciplinary representation of research in this broad area to redefine the existing state-of-the-art, and address remaining challenges for practical implementation of these technologies.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

L04 - Charge Transfer: Electrons, Protons, and Other Ions 3

Charge transfer is important to both the frontier of fundamental science and in the long term solutions for energy generation, conversion, and storage. Applications are diverse and include: hybrid inorganic-polymer composite photovoltaic solar cells, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, and lithium ion and redox flow batteries, to name but a few. Although the charge carrier may be different in these devices there are common features in all charge transfer reactions or processes. This symposium will provide a forum to present recent progress in understanding how local molecular and larger mesoscale aspects determine the nature and energetics of charge transfer and transport in various systems and devices. Current interest ranges from: (a.) utilization of single or small groups of organic molecules or polymers as components in electronic devices; to (b.) exploitation of semiconductor and metal or metal oxide nanoparticles because of their high surface areas and other size-dependent properties; to (c.) the effects of the density and distribution of fixed and/or mobile ions in electrodes (double layer), and electrolytes. Papers of interest include both experimental and theoretical studies that may be either applied or fundamental in focus.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

L05 - Oxygen Reduction Reactions

The oxygen reduction reactions are becoming of primary importance to the electrochemical science of technology and to numerous scientific disciplines. Examples include development of catalysts for low-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells, alkaline fuel cells, enzymatic biofuel cells, air batteries or high temperature fuel cell, as well as chemical, biological and biomedical sensors. This symposium will feature presentations on research dealing with the fundamental and applied aspects of oxygen reduction reactions of relevance various aspects of science and existing technologies. Papers are solicited in all areas of analytical, kinetic and mechanistic studies (also at molecular level), development of novel catalytic materials (utilizing noble metals, alloys, surface-decorated and nanostructured systems, ceramic materials, nanostructured metal oxides and various functionalized carbon supports, molecular or metaloorganic materials including N4-transition metal microcycles, metal-Nx type catalysts, enzymes or their combinations, microbial biofilm-based layers and various hybrid systems), modeling, simulation and evaluation of electrode systems for oxygen reduction as well as discussion of related interfacial phenomena. Special attention will be paid to new techniques to probe oxygen reduction electrocatalytic reactions, formation and decomposition of hydrogen peroxide as the reaction intermediate and biomedical and other applications of oxygen electrochemistry. Specific areas of interest also include development of non-precious metals for oxygen reduction under various conditions, attempts to reduce the amounts of precious metals, possible applications in hydrogen-air and direct alcohol fuel cells. The symposium will include both invited and contributed papers on all aspects of the oxygen reduction chemistry, physics and materials chemistry and engineering of electrocatalytic systems. The goal is to bring together scientists and engineers of different backgrounds that are active in the areas mentioned above.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

L06 - Nanoporous Materials

Nanoporous materials (characterized by pore sizes in the 100 nm range or smaller) find myriad applications in electrochemical sensing, catalysis, environmental remediation and separation, photoelectrochemistry, and energy storage, among others. Nanoporous materials have unique surface, structural, and bulk properties determined by their pore structure, pore size distribution, and surface chemistry. The development of nanoporous materials requires specialized design, synthesis, and characterization methods that tailor pore structure and chemistry to achieve desired material properties. The goal of this symposium is to explore unique challenges and opportunities in the evolution and utilization of nanoporous materials. Topics of interest include but are not limited to: 1) design, simulation, and/or characterization of nanoporous materials, 2) novel synthesis methods for developing nanoporous materials, 3) unique applications of nanoporous materials in electrochemistry and beyond, and 4) insights into the effects of pore structure and surface functionalization on the properties and potential applications of nanoporous materials.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

L07 - Electrochemistry and Consumer Products

This symposium looks to examine the use of electrochemistry in developing and analyzing consumer products. Topics include but not limited to development of new techniques, novel uses of standard techniques, and green solvents.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

L08 - Electrochemically Assisted Fluorescence

This symposium address all aspects of electrochemically assisted fluorescence from fundamentals to new practical applications. The symposium invites papers on new theoretical and experimental approaches that may lead to improved merits of analytical techniques as well as papers describing modeling of such systems.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.


M01 - Sensors, Actuators, and Microsystems General Session

This symposium will address all aspects of chemical and biological sensors, actuators and microsystems. A companion symposium concerning the corresponding aspects of physical sensors and actuators may be found under Topic S. Chemical and biological sensors find extensive application in environmental monitoring, health care, food security and industrial quality assurance, safety and process control. Sensors and actuators are often integrated into “smart” microsystems: microfabricated sensors and/or actuators combined with electronics which enable, for example, signal conditioning and data processing. The need for multifunctional, smart technologies, which depend on sensors, actuators and electronics, is expected to increase in coming years as further demands and expectations are placed on systems and devices. This general session welcomes papers on all aspects of chemical and biological sensors, actuators and microsystems not covered in other sessions. This symposium intends to bring together a range of interdisciplinary topics and covers all materials aspects of sensors, actuators and microsystems. Primary emphasis will be placed upon applied aspects of the materials, synthesis, evaluation and development strategies of novel materials/device configurations for sensing and actuating functions as well as integrated microsystems. Papers are solicited in, but not limited to, the following areas: (1.) physics and chemistry of sensor and actuator materials, fabrication, and characterization of novel compositions; (2.) novel sensor and actuator concepts, design, modeling, and verification, system integration and actuating functions; (3.) sensing systems that include sampling systems and actuators, like sensor arrays, and electronic noses/tongues; (4.) chemical and biological sensors and actuators based on various transduction mechanisms including electrochemical, resistive, fluorescence, surface plasmon resonance, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, fiber optics, radio frequency, microwave and surface acoustics; (5.) emerging technologies and applications including chemical and biological sensors based on nanotechnology, (6.) wireless integrations; and (7.) novel techniques to expand and ensure sensor stability and reliability.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

M02 - Microfluidics, Sensors, and Devices 2

This symposium will specifically focus on the underlying electrochemical, chemical and physical principles related to the microfluidics, micro electro mechanical and nano electro mechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS), sensors and integrated sensing devices. The focus on aspects of micro/nanomachining, fabrication processes, or packaging will be de-emphasized. Instead, the operation-critical phenomena and physical properties, especially as they begin to deviate in principle upon device miniaturization from the constructs of classical physical and conventional chemistry will be the focus of this symposium. The contributions are sought on aspects of analyte detection, sample introduction, sample transport, in situ device validation, and fabrication, encapsulation and packaging, in cases where the phenomena arising from miniaturization become germane.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.


Z01 - General Student Poster Session

This poster session provides a forum for graduate and undergraduate students to present research results of general interest to ECS. The purpose of this session is to foster and promote work in both electrochemical and solid-state science and technology, and to stimulate active student interest and participation in ECS. A competition for the best posters in both the wet chemistry and solid state areas will be part of the session. Cash prizes will be given to the presenting student author on each winning paper; the amounts are awarded at the discretion of the organizers and judges.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

Z02 - Nanotechnology General Session

The emergence of nanotechnology as a major field of research has touched almost every scientific discipline. The number of applications for materials that are prepared on a nanometer scale has been expanding rapidly. The advancement of these applications is made possible by the new methods of preparation and characterization of materials and composites on a nanometer scale. Examples include catalysts for fuel cell, battery and supercapacitor applications, semiconductors for photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion, and chemical and biological sensors. This symposium will focus on critical issues and state-of-the art developments in the science and technology of nanostructured materials for a broad spectrum of applications. Papers are solicited in all areas related to materials including metals, ceramics, semiconductors, composites, molecular electronics, and organic compounds and polymers, and to devices including fuel cells, batteries, photovoltaic cells, supercapacitors, molecular/nano electronics, chemical and biological sensors, actuators, etc. Areas of interest include: heterogeneous functional materials for energy systems; semiconductor and metal nanoparticles and metal/semiconductor nanocomposites; size quantization effects in semiconductor nanoparticles; fundamentals of nucleation and growth of nanoparticles/nanowires/nanotubes; novel synthesis methods of nanostructured materials; processing of nanostructured materials; advanced characterization techniques for nanostructured materials; modeling and tailoring of nanostructured materials; nanocomposites and interfacial phenomena; photo-induced charge separation and interfacial charge transfer; photoelectrochemistry of nanostructured films; photo-catalysis and environmental applications; nano-ionics; nanostructured catalysts for fuel cells, electrolyzers, batteries and supercapacitors; nanostructured sensor surfaces; and biological applications of nanomaterials.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.

Z03 - Solid State Topics General Session

Original papers are solicited on all aspects of electronic materials, devices and processing technologies not covered by specialized topical symposia at this meeting.
The deadline of Monday, 20 November 2017 has been reached. New submissions closed.