V2O5 As the Cathode for Mg2+-Ion Batteries, Preparation and Characterization
Since the morphology and structure of the host materials strongly influence the intercalation process, in this study efforts have been done to synthesize V2O5 with different morphology by applying different synthetic routes and choosing the best material for the metal ion intercalation. V2O5 was prepared by means of sonochemical modification of commercial V2O5 powder, anodization of V metal, electrochemical deposition and hydrothermal synthesis. The obtained materials were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sonochemical treatment and electrochemical deposition yielded V2O5-nanofibers, the anodization method V2O5-nanotubes and the hydrothermal synthesis hollow nanospheres of V2O5. The performance of the obtained materials was tested by several electrochemical techniques such are cyclic voltammetry, potentiostatic intermittent titration technique (PITT) and galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles. Li, Na and Mg intercalation were studied. For Li, the rate capability of the sonochemically prepared material was clearly improved compared to commercial, microcrystalline V2O5, but the available voltage at a given discharge capacity was less. The electrodeposited material showed a rather poor performance, while the hollow nanospheres behaved very promising. Also for Na intercalation the latter material showed reasonable performance. First measurements for Mg insertion are shown as well.
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