Spectroscopy of Metal/Electrolyte Interfaces
In this lecture I will present and discuss investigations of several electrochemical interface pheno-mena as they occur in electro-catalysis, anion-adsorption, metal-deposition, molecular self-assembly, structural phase transitions, etc., using a number of in-situ methods like various modes of optical spectroscopy (IRRAS, RAS, etc.), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning tunneling microscopy/ spectros-copy (STM/STS) as well as (still unavoidably) ex-situ methods like electron spectroscopies (XPS; AES), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS). As an example Fig.1 shows EC-STM images and IRRAS spectra of a) the "stripe-structure" and b) the "cavitand-structure" of dibenzyl-viologen molecules adsorbed on Cu(100) in HCl-solution. XPS proves the monocationic [dicationic] state of the molecular building blocks in a) [b)], while IRRAS enables a structural refine-ment of the orientation of the individual molecular cations in the respective structure (see models).
 T.-D. Pham, K. Wandelt, P. Broekmann, Chem. Phys. Chem. 8 (16) (2007) 2318-2320
 M.Röefzaad, PhD-thesis, Univ. Bonn, Germany; and M.Röefzaad, K.Wandelt, in preparation