Synthetic Strategies Impacting Voltage, Capacity, and Current Capability of Energy Storage Materials
Materials from several structural types could be synthetically controlled to achieve variation in crystallite size. For example, magnetite, Fe3O4, a densely packed structure could be made where the crystallite size is tightly controlled.1,2 Correlation of the electrohemical performance to crystallite size was observed where the cell using the smallest crystallite size, delivered higher capacity under pulse type testing.
A second category of materials is represented by AgxMn8O16 (silver hollandite) a tunnel structure.3 Remarkably, as the Ag:Mn ratio was varied via the synthetic approach developed for the system, concomitant changes in the crystallite size were observed.4 This enabled systematic investigation of this variable on the resultant electrochemistry. The delivered capacity, reversibility, and loaded voltage improved significantly for the small crystallite size material.5
1. S. Zhu; A.C. Marschilok; E.S. Takeuchi; K.J. Takeuchi. Electrochemical and Solid State Letters, 2009, 12(4), A91-A94.
2. S. Zhu; A.C. Marschilok; E.S. Takeuchi; G.T. Yee; G. Wang, G.; K.J. Takeuchi. J. Electrochem. Society, 2010, 157(11), A1158-A1163.
3. S. Zhu; A.C. Marschilok; C.-Y. Lee; E.S. Takeuchi; K.J. Takeuchi. Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 2010, 13(8), A98-A100.
4. K.J. Takeuchi; S.Z. Yau; M.C. Menard; A.C. Marschilok; E.S. Takeuchi. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces. 2012, 4(10), 5547-5554.
5. K.J. Takeuchi; S.Z. Yau; A. Subramanian; A.C. Marschilok; E.S. Takeuchi. J. Electrochem. Soc. 2013, 160(5), A3090-A3094.