Electrodeposition of Zn - Ni Alloys from Protic Ionic Liquids
The studied PILs synthetized by using well-known amounts of a linear aliphatic amine and a single-chain carboxylic acid as precursors in order to get mixtures of controlled composition (e.g., pure PIL or mixture of a pure PIL and its pure acidic or basic precursor as a co-solvent) to be applied directly as the depositon bath in the electrochemical deposition of nanostructured nickel, zinc and their alloys.
The electrodeposition process was studied by electrochemical techniques and the obtained deposits were characterized by optical microscopy and also by SEM and AFM techniques. For the electrodeposition of the studied single metals (Ni and Zn), results shown that nanostructured nickel and zinc deposits can be electrodeposited from these protic ILs with faradic efficiencies dependent on the composition of the IL and on the temperature; the influence of the physicochemical properties of the studied PILs and of the temperature on the morphological characteristics of the obtained deposits were also evaluated. The major effects were attributed to the influence of composition on mass and charge transfer properties of the PILs.
In the case of the electrodeposited Ni-Zn alloys, results allow to evaluate the influence of the composition of the ionic liquid on the composition of the electrodeposited alloys. In these media, it is observed that Zn-rich alloys are commonly formed. The morphology of the obtained electrodeposits are strongly dependent on the temperature.
These results allow conclude that the studied PILs are good as new reaction media with tunable properties for electrochemical applications, allowing to propose them as new systems for electrodeposition processes, as new single solvents without the use of organic additives.
Acknowledgements: Authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from SEP–CONACyT Program (Project CB 2011-1-168032). TBGR is indebted to CONACYT for the fellowship.