Li3V2(PO4)3 As a Positive Electrode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries
Most commonly used positive electrode is LiCoO2 because it has good electrochemical property. However, Co is rare material and it is placed in limited area. Therefore, price of Co increases more and more. To substitute Co, plenty of transition metal material is studied such as Fe, Ni, Mn and V. Among them polyanion phosphate material such as LiMPO4 (M = Fe, Co, Mn and etc) and Li3V2(PO4)3 are considered as possible candidate materials because of their structure, thermal stabilities and low price. However, those polyanion material, LiMPO4 (M = Fe, Co, Mn) has low energy density, causing low energy density. Li3V2(PO4)3 has good safety as LiFePO4 but higher energy density than LiFePO4 because of its high redox potential, V2+/5+. Also, Li3V2(PO4)3 has high reversible capacity and high theoretical capacity (197 mAh g-1). In this paper, physical and electrochemical properties of Li3V2(PO4)3 is investigated.
Li3V2(PO4)3 is synthesized by solid state method. Stoichiometric amount of Li2CO3, NH4H2PO4, and V2O5 powders were grind and mixed by ball mill. The mixed powders were calcined at 500 oC in air atmosphere. The calcined powders were pelletized and sintered at 800 oC for 5 h in reduction atmosphere again. The calcinations, heated pellets were grind in Ar filled glove box to avoid air exposure. The synthesized Li3V2(PO4)3 powders were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) with Cu Kα radiation and analyzed by Rietveld refinement. Electrochemical test were carried out in coin type cell. Galvanostatic electrochemical charge and discharge test were made between 3.0 V and 4.8 V at 10 mA g-1 current at room temperature.
The XRD pattern of the product shows single phase Li3V2(PO4)3 were obtained without impurity. The galvanostatic charge and discharge performances of Li3V2(PO4)3 as an positive electrode are tested in voltage range of 3.0 V and 4.8 V. Also to understand the mechanism during charge and discharge, ex-situ XRD, XPS and ToF-SIMS measurement were carried out at the first cycle. Furthermore to understand the affect the thermal stability high temperature XRD and TGA were carried out. Details will be discussed in the conference site.