Carbon-MEMS (CMEMS) and Carbon-NEMS (CNEMS): Multi-Length Scale Manufacturing in Carbon
In this contribution we emphasize embodiments of C-MEMS and C-NEMS that allows us to fabricate the very smallest carbon features (nanometer and micrometer range): a photoresist is either patterned by lithography and is subsequently pyrolyzed at high-temperature in an oxygen-free environment or photoresist nanofibers are deposited by electrospinning and then pyrolized . The C-MEMS and C-NEMS applications we are highlighting in this paper are ultrasensitive carbon interdigitated electrode arrays (IDEAs) for nanoelectrochemistry  and suspended carbon nano-wires for sensor application in the liquid and gas phase .
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