Optimization of MnO2 Cathodes for Aqueous Battery Applications
We have extensively studied the MnO2 alkaline system and have developed a variety of techniques to extend this depth of discharge window, improving the capacity and cyclability of the cell dramatically. We have also developed novel nanostructured forms of MnO2 for use as a cathode material in this system. Using these techniques, we have achieved capacities of over 350 mAh/g (1.2 e-) for more than 150 cycles. In this presentation, we will discuss the various failure modes of the MnO2 alkaline system, and the techniques our group has developed to overcome them. We will describe the crystal structure and electrochemical performance of the nanomaterials we have synthesized, as well as the structural changes occurring during their use as an electrode material as characterized via synchrotron radiation and other techniques.
With further development, this material, combined with either a zinc anode or an earth abundant, insoluble anode such as Fe or Cd, may allow for over 1000 cycles at a cost of less that $100/kWhr for a packed out cell.