New Carbon Materials with Large Closed Pore Volume As Anode for High Energy Na-Ion Batteries
Non-graphitized carbon samples were synthesized by heating various raw materials at between 1000 and 2600 °C under flowing argon. The pore structure of the synthesized carbon samples was characterized by using argon and nitrogen adsorption measurement and helium gas densitometry. Electrochemical properties were evaluated by using laminate-type cell with Na metals as the counter electrode and the reference electrode.
Open and closed pore volumes of the synthesized carbons were calculated and the relationship between the reversible capacity and pore volume was investigated. As seen in Figure 1, an almost linear relationship between the reversible capacity in the voltage range from 0.2 to 0.0 V (vs. Na metal) and the closed pore volume was confirmed. Some carbon materials with large closed pore volume on the basis of this relationship were designed and successfully synthesized. Figure 2 shows charge/discharge curves of one of synthesized carbon samples. This carbon sample had the closed pore volume of 0.37 cc/g and its discharge capacity reached 413 mAh/g. This result suggests that Na-ion could be inserted reversibly in the closed pore and non-graphitized carbons with large closed pore volume may be promising for high capacity anode materials for Na-ion batteries.
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