Determination of Battery Stability with Advanced Diagnostics

Tuesday, October 13, 2015: 10:40
Remington A (Hyatt Regency)
J. Lamb (Sandia National Laboratories), C. J. Orendorff (Sandia National Laboratories), and J. Christophersen (Idaho National Laboratory)
The increasing demand of lithium ion batteries for vehicle electrification is changing the typical use conditions that batteries may see. Over time, batteries may develop defects that are difficult to detect with traditional measurements. It is also possible that batteries may be left in an unknown state after failure of the monitoring system, loss of communication, or a potentially damaging event (such as an auto accident). It is therefore useful to explore other monitoring and interrogation methods that can better determine the stability of a battery in an unknown state. This work explores the use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy as a method to determine the stability of batteries by observing changes in the complex impedance measurement as the cell is exposed to abusive conditions. Very dramatic changes to the internal resistance were observed when single cells were exposed to abusive conditions, suggesting that even single frequency impedance measurements could be effective with single cells. However tests on three cell series and parallel strings yielded smaller changes, primarily to the charge transfer resistance, showing that complex impedance measurements are more appropriate as the system increases in complexity. A rapid impedance tool developed at Idaho National Laboratory was tested and compared to traditional potentiostat tools as well. This was shown to yield similar data to the traditional tools, providing a potential method for continuous monitoring of a battery system. It was observed, however, that shifts in the data are difficult to detect in very transient systems.

Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.