Potential and Adsorbate Effects in Electrodeposition: Lessons Learned from Atomic-Scale in Situ and Operando Studies
Such data can be obtained by state-of-the-art surface-sensitive methods, which enable in situ studies of the interface structure and dynamics or even operando investigations at growth rates approaching those in technological processes. Together with ab initio theory calculations they provide first insights into the complex effects of potential and coadsorbates on the dynamics of species at the surface of the deposit during the growth (e.g. metal adatoms). I will specifically present studies of Cu and Au single crystal electrodes by synchrotron-based X-ray scattering techniques and high-speed scanning tunneling microscopy, focusing on the influence of halides on surface dynamics and metal growth. The obtained results reveal very pronounced and partially unexpected effects, which can lead to crossover between qualitatively different growth regimes. The relevance of these observations for electroplating, prospects for operando studies of technologically interesting cases, as well as remaining challenges and future directions will be discussed.