Integrated Multiscale Multiphysics Modeling of Dynamic Short Circuit Behavior in Large Lithium-Ion Batteries

Wednesday, October 14, 2015: 09:30
Remington A (Hyatt Regency)
G. H. Kim, C. Yang (National Renewable Energy Laboratory), and A. Pesaran (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)
Scale-up of the battery raises the complexity of interactions among the physicochemical processes occurring in intricate geometries across wide range time and length scales. The entangled interplays critically affect the performance, safety, and reliability of the batteries. Violent incidents reported for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)  and consequent safety concerns are still the major hindrance for fast market penetration of LIB-powered electric drive vehicles. Most of safety incidents leading to a thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries involve internal-short-circuit (ISC).

ISCs are caused either from a latent defect growing over time or from a sudden mechanical failure of internal cell structure that may occur during battery intrusion or crush. Puncture and crush response of a battery involves various aspects of physics. The Multiscale Multidomain (MSMD) model framework provides a modular architecture, facilitating flexible integration of multiphysics model components. At initial stage of an ISC, the faulted battery is electrochemically active. This is true even through a whole event if no severe consequence follows. As such, the electrochemical model is imperative to determine the battery dynamic response to short circuit. For an induced ISC, fault current and accompanied heat must be quantified properly in consideration of thermodynamic and kinetic factors, while capturing the electronic current pathways along the intricate LIB geometries. LIB component materials become thermally unstable under exposure to high temperatures. The abuse reaction kinetics model predicts the battery’s chemical responses. In this paper, we introduce an integrated multiphysics LIB safety response model built on the MSMD nonlinear multiscale multiphysics model framework, and apply the model to investigate electrical, thermal, chemical and electrochemical behaviors of large-format cells in various form factors while resolving dynamic evolution of internal short circuit.