Robust Fail-Safe Iteration Free Solvers for Battery Models

Tuesday, October 13, 2015
West Hall 1 (Phoenix Convention Center)
M. Pathak (University of Washington Seattle), D. Sonawane (Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle), M. T. Lawder (EECE Department, Washington University in St. Louis), and V. Subramanian (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle)
Mathematical models of batteries1, 3, 4 are dynamic systems. which are typically solved by using a finite difference or other discretization technique in the spatial direction and solving the resulting system of nonlinear differential algebraic equations (DAEs) in time2.

The resulting DAEs are stiff, often times ill-conditioned and many standard solvers fail to solve them. The complications in solving the system of DAEs also include the inability of the solvers to find consistent initial conditions for the algebraic variables5,6.  Most stiff solvers include a Newton-Raphson type iterative methods to solve these stiff equations. (DASKR, RADAU, IDA7).

In this work, we propose a single-step iteration free approach to system initialization and simulation allowing for systems of DAEs to be solved using explicit ODE solvers without exact knowledge of the initial conditions for the algebraic variables. We will present this new solver which is guaranteed to not fail for any meaningful physical situations.


The work presented herein was funded in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency – Energy (ARPA-E), U.S. Department of Energy, under Award Number DE-AR0000275.


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  7. IDA,[http://computation.llnl.gov/casc/sundials/main.html]