Nanostructured supports that were selected for CO2 electroreduction studies include reduced graphene oxide (RGO), single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) and onion-like carbon (OLC) . These three supports share some common features, such as good chemical and thermal stabilities and high specific surface areas. Cu nanoparticles were deposited on the three supports using traditional wet chemistry methods.
For synthesis of highly porous unsupported Cu structures, a scalable surficial support method was developed [4, 5] that led to production of Cu nanoparticles with the optimal cubic morphology .
 O.A. Baturina, Q. Lu, M.A. Padilla, L. Xin, W. Li, A. Serov, K. Artyushkova, P. Atanassov, F. Xu, A. Epshteyn, T. Brintlinger, M. Schuette, G. Collins, ACS Catalysis 4 (2014) 3682
 O. A. Baturina, Q. Lu, F. Xu, A. Purdy, B. Dyatkin, X. Sang, R. Unocic, T. Brintlinger, Y. Gogotsi, Catalysis Today (2016, DOI:10.1016/j.cattod.2016.11.001)
 J. K. McDonough, Y. Gogotsi, Interface, 22 (2013) 61.
 U. Martinez, A. Serov, M. Padilla, P. Atanassov, ChemSusChem 7 (2014) 2351
 A. Serov, N. I. Andersen, A. J. Roy, I. Matanovic, K. Artyushkova, P. Atanassov, J. Electrochem. Soc. 162 (2015) F449
 M. Padilla, O. Baturina, J. P. Gordon, K. Artyushkova, P. Atanassov, A. Serov, J. of CO2 Utilisation 19 (2017) 137