However, it has been suggested that e.g. the SrO segregation is due to the vacuum based ex situ analytical tools such as low energy ion scattering (LEIS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). In general, the literature results are quite scattered, so the issue is still open for discussion.
The aim of this paper is to settle this discussion. First a brief summary of some main literature results are given, and next some results of our own on studies on popular commercial perovskite materials are presented and discussed. The methods used are Raman spectroscopy and XRD, which are not vacuum techniques, and ToF-SIMS and XPS, which are vacuum techniques.
The conclusion is that usually a perovskite surface will be covered with segregated material of as well components like SrO as impurities in the perovskite starting material. Furthermore, the available evidences point to the perovskite surfaces being very dynamic with relatively fast changes that are visible within periods of few hours with developments continuing for hundreds of hours.
We acknowledge financial support from Energinet.dk through the ForskEL programme Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for the Renewable Energy Transition contract no. 2014-1-12231, and by The Energy Technology Development and Demonstration Program (EUDP) at the Danish Energy Agency via project “Maturing SOEC”, contract no. 64015-0523.
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