In-Situ Atomic Force Microscopy Studies of Ti3C2: A Promising New Material for Electrochemical Capacitors

Wednesday, 8 October 2014: 08:30
Sunrise, 2nd Floor, Star Ballroom 1 (Moon Palace Resort)
J. Black (Oak Ridge National Laboratory), M. Beidaghi (Drexel Nanomaterials institute, Department of Materials Science and Engineerring, Drexel University), S. V. Kalinin (Oak Ridge National Laboratory), Y. Gogotsi (Dept of Mat. Sci. and Eng., Drexel University), and N. Balke (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)
MXenes are a newly discovered class of two-dimensional materials prepared through extraction of metals such as Al from MAX phases, whose general formula is Mn+1AXn,  where M is an early transition metal, A an A-group element, and X is carbon and/or nitrogen.[1-3]   Ti3C2 is one member of this MXene family which is capable of capacitances of up to 350 F cm-3, making this an attractive material for electrochemical capacitors.[4] The high storage capacity of this material is attributed to rapid intercalation of electrolyte ions within the layered structure [Figure 1a]. In this work we use in-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) to probe the macroscopic expansion of Ti3C2 during electrochemical cycling. The in-situ electrochemical AFM cell used for this study as well as the relative height change of a Ti3C2 electrode in 1 M KOH electrolyte are shown in Figures 1b and c. During negative polarization of the material K+ ions are incorporated into the Ti3C2 structure associated with a macroscopic expansion of the electrode. Studies are performed on various Ti3C2 electrodes in several electrolytes to determine the effect of different ions and electrode structure on the electrochemical behavior and observed strain response.


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  2. Naguib, M.;Kurtoglu, M.;Presser, V.;Lu, J.;Niu, J.;Heon, M.;Hultman, L.;Gogotsi, Y.; Barsoum, M. W. Two-Dimensional Nanocrystals Produced by Exfoliation of Ti3AlC2. Advanced Materials 2011, 23, 4248-4253.
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  4. Lukatskaya, M. R.;Mashtalir, O.;Ren, C. E.;Dall’Agnese, Y.;Rozier, P.;Taberna, P. L.;Naguib, M.;Simon, P.;Barsoum, M. W.; Gogotsi, Y. Cation Intercalation and High Volumetric Capacitance of Two-Dimensional Titanium Carbide. Science 2013, 341, 1502-1505.

Figure 1: a) SEM image of Ti3C2 working electrode. b) Photograph of in-situ electrochemical AFM cell. c) Cyclic voltammogram of Ti3C2 working electrode in 1 M KOH electrolyte and corresponding relative height change measured using in-situ AFM.