ALD Grown Rare-Earth High-k Oxides on Ge: Lowering of the Interface Trap Density and EOT Scalability
Our approach focus on the complete removal of GeOx by thermal desorption followed by in-situ Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) of reactive rare earth oxides like Y2O3 and La2O3. The ALD process has been carried out by using Tris(methylcyclopentadienyl)yttrium Y(MeCp)3 for the growth of Y2O3, (N,N’)-diisopropylformamidinate)-lanthanum for the growth of La2O3, and for ZrO2 tetrakis(dimethylamino)zirconium. As oxygen supplying agents O2 or H2O have been employed while temperature of the n-doped (100)-Ge substrates has been kept at 250°C during ALD.
The formation of GeOx as well as germanates during the ALD process is proven by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). By applying well adapted annealing processes in various atmospheres Dit at mid-gap can be lowered from high values of 1013 eV−1cm−2 down to values close below 1011 eV−1cm−2. The interfacial reaction between the high-k dielectric and the Ge surface induced by the annealing steps are characterized by XPS.
Structural and chemical investigations of the high-k oxides itself are done by performing X-ray Diffraction, XPS, and Transmission Electron Microscopy analyses. By performing Capacitance-Voltage, Current-Voltage and Conductance-Voltage measurements of MOS capacitors, a trade-off between Dit, Leakage-Current, Breakdown-Voltage on the one hand and Equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) on the other hand is observed in all cases dependent on annealing time and annealing temperature. It is also shown that the EOT can be significant lowered to values in between of 0.5 nm and 1.5 nm by using stacked oxides like Y2O3/ZrO2 and La2O3/ZrO2 and by applying suited layers in order to stabilize the very high-k phase of ZrO2.
In this work, it is demonstrated that the Ge surface can be effectively passivated by using rare-earth high-k metal-oxides if suited high temperature annealing steps in oxygen and forming gas atmosphere are applied.
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