SEI-Film-Suppression Additive for Enhancing Compatibility and Electrochemical Stability of Graphite Anode in PC-Based Electrolytes
Tuesday, 26 May 2015: 08:20
Salon A-5 (Hilton Chicago)
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are one of the most promising power sources for electric vehicles because of their high energy density and long lifetime. Graphite is widely used as anode electrode material in the state-of-the-art LIBs. However, a graphite anode is usually only compatible with an ethylene carbonate (EC)-based electrolyte. When contacting with a propylene carbonate (PC)-based electrolyte, which is advantageous over the EC-based one for its wider temperature range and higher low-temperature conductivity, the graphite anode may suffer from substantial exfoliation problem during the initial lithium intercalation step. Consequently, a PC-based electrolyte cannot be used in LIBs with graphite as the anode unless some solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film-formation additives are introduced into the electrolytes. Usually this type of additives is reduced predominantly on the graphite electrode surface before PC is intercalated and reduced. These additives mainly contain some functional groups such as vinylene or cyclic unsaturated compounds. For example, vinylene carbonate (VC) and fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) have been widely studied and used as additives for PC-based electrolytes. They play an important role in the protection of the structure of the graphitic anode from destruction by PC, but they also have some shortcomings. Usually these additives result in a thick SEI protective layer, which could significantly reduce the rate capability and limit low-temperature performance and cycling stability at elevated temperatures because of its additional impedance and poor thermal stability.
Recently, we developed a novel electrolyte additive that can suppress the PC reductive decomposition on the graphite anode without a thick and resistant SEI film. The additive may provide a novel protective mechanism for the graphite anode in the PC-containing electrolytes without or with suppressed SEI film formation. The SEI-film-suppression additive can not only significantly improve the compatibility between graphite anode and PC-containing electrolyte, but also exhibit superior rate capability and excellent cycling stability at elevated temperatures. We believe that this new electrolyte additive can be applied to LIBs and other electrochemical systems using PC-containing electrolytes and graphite anodes. The details of the results will be reported.
This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Vehicle Technology of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The electron microscopy and XRD measurements were performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at PNNL.