(Invited) Performance and Durability of Solid Oxide Cells for Energy Storage
The second part of the talk will describe results on degradation mechanisms, important for SOC storage technologies to achieve sufficient long-term durability for economic viability. LSM-YSZ and LSCF oxygen electrodes have been studied in both dc electrolysis and reversing-current (alternating between electrolysis and fuel cell operation) modes; similar delamination mechanisms are observed in both cases, although stability is improved by current cycling. A critical current density and overpotential is observed below which degradation is too slow to measure over ~ 1000 h, but above which degradation rate increases rapidly. High efficiency storage requires SOCs characterized by low resistance at intermediate temperatures. This makes it desirable to utilize nano-scale electrodes, but these may be susceptible to degradation by particle coarsening. Accelerated life test results for impregnated oxygen electrode materials are presented and fitted using a combined electrochemical/coarsening model, and the resulting expressions are used to predict long-term performance degradation. Life test results on Ni-based fuel electrodes are also discussed.