On the Hydration of P2-Layered Sodium-Ion Cathode Materials in Aqueous Battery Applications
Recent work on the development of high-performance sodium-ion cathode materials has identified layered transition-metal oxides synthesized with a P2 stacking sequence demonstrate both high capacity and high capacity retention, which makes this class of intercalation compounds promising for use in battery applications.
Our work focuses on the consequences of utilizing P2-layered oxides in aqueous electrolytes; in particular, the vulnerability of these layered materials to hydration, in which water is incorporated into the layered structure. This phenomenon is not dissimilar to the weathering of many naturally occurring layered minerals such as Mica and Vermiculite. P2 compounds of multiple compositions will be studied using a variety of techniques including cycling results, x-ray diffraction, and thermo-gravimetric analysis in order to identify the onset of material hydration as well as the ramification of this phenomenon for aqueous battery applications.