Degradation and Electronic Confinement in Exfoliated Black Phosphorus

Tuesday, 26 May 2015: 10:40
Lake Ontario (Hilton Chicago)
R. Martel, E. Gaufrès, A. Favron (Université de Montréal), F. Fossard (CNRS-ONERA), A. L. Phaneuf (Ecole Polytechnique), P. Lévesque (Department of Chemistry, Université de Montréal), A. Loiseau (CNRS-Onera), R. Leonelli (Université de Montréal), and S. Francoeur (Ecole Polytechnique)
Thin layers of black phosphorus have recently raised interest for their two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting properties, such as tunable bandgap with layer thickness and high carrier mobilities. This lamellar crystal of P atoms can be exfoliated down to monolayer 2D-phosphane (also called phosphorene) using procedures similar to that for monolayer graphene. The devices are however challenging to fabricate due to fast degradation of the thin layers upon exposure to light in air. We investigated this degradation process using in-situ Raman and transmission electron spectroscopies and reported on a thickness dependent reactivity of the layers. Moreover, the degradation process was identified to be due to an ubiquitous photo-induced oxidation of the layers by adsorbed oxygen in water. Optimum experimental conditions to prepare n-layer 2D-phosphane in their pristine states were applied to determine the Raman signatures of degradation. Here, we report on the kinetics of the photo-oxidation and provide sigantures in the Raman spectra that could be used to assess the crystal quality.