Synthesis and Electrochemical Characterization of a Sodium Manganese Oxide By Facile Reduction Reaction for Sodium Ion Batteries

Tuesday, October 13, 2015
West Hall 1 (Phoenix Convention Center)
J. Song, J. Gim, S. Kim, J. Jo, M. H. Alfaruqi, S. Park, J. Yang (Chonnam National University), and J. Kim (Chonnam National University)
A non-stoichiometric composition of sodium manganese oxide (NaxMnO2+δ) cathode useful for sodium batteries was synthesized by an ambient temperature strategy that involves the facile reduction of aqueous sodium permanganate in sodium iodide and subsequent heat treatment at 600 °C.  A combined powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD) analyses confirmed the annealed sample to belong to a NaxMnO2 phase with a P2-hexagonal structure. The ICP results confirmed the stoichiometry of the sample to be Na0.53MnO2+δ. Electron microscopy studies revealed the particle size of the electrode to be in the range of a few hundred nanometers. The Na0.53MnO2+δ cathode delivered average discharge capacities of 170 mAhg-1 with a stable plateau at 2.1 V for the initial 25 cycles versus sodium. Ex-situ XANES studies confirmed the reversible intercalation of sodium into Na0.53MnO2+δ and suggested the accommodation of over-stoichiometric Mn4+ ions to contribute towards electrode performance.