Amorphous Iron Phosphate : Potential Host for Various Charge Carrier Ions

Tuesday, October 13, 2015
West Hall 1 (Phoenix Convention Center)
S. Kim, J. Gim, J. Song, J. P. Baboo, M. H. Alfaruqi, J. Jo, D. Kim, Y. Kim (Chonnam National University), and J. Kim (Chonnam National University)
Since 1990, the global demand for electricity has increased twice as much as the demand for energy overall, and the demand for electricity is expected to further increase by more than two-thirds over the next 20 years. Energy storage/conversion technologies have therefore become a crucial research topic as we seek to make society sustainable. In particular, electrical energy storage is critical not only for supporting electronic, vehicular and load-leveling applications but also for efficiently commercializing renewable solar and wind power. In response to the ever-increasing global demand for viable energy-storage systems, sodium and potassium batteries appear to be promising alternatives to lithium ion batteries because of the abundance, low cost and environmental benignity of sodium/potassium. Electrical energy storage via ion-intercalation reactions in crystalline electrodes is critically dependent on the sizes of the guest ions. Herein, we report on the use of a porous amorphous iron phosphate synthesized using ambient temperature strategies as a potential host that stores electrical energy through the feasible insertion of mono-/di-/tri-valent ions. A combination of ex situ studies reveals the existence of a reversible amorphous-to-crystalline transition in this versatile electrode during electrochemical reactions with monovalent sodium, potassium and lithium. This reconstitutive reaction contributes to realizing specific capacities of 179 and 156 mAh/g versus sodium and potassium at current densities of 10 and 5 mA/g, respectively. This finding facilitates the feasible development of several amorphous electrodes with similar phase behavior for energy-storage applications.