Naphthoquinone Derivatives As Low-Potential Electron Mediators of Fad-Dependent Glucose Dehydrogenase
We have prepared a range of naphthoquinone analogues that are capable of mediating electron transfer between FAD-GDH and carbon electrodes, with onset potentials ranging between -0.425 to -0.150 V (vs. SCE), at pH 7.4. Several naphthoquinone derivatives were immobilized either onto a poly(ethylenimine) backbone or directly onto the outer shell of FAD-GDH to yield a naphthoquinone redox hydrogel and a naphthoquinone-labeled FAD-GDH. Both methods demonstrated large catalytic current densities at low onset potentials. When coupled with an O2-reducing biocathode (bilirubin oxidase, direct electron transfer-type) the glucose/O2 EFC possessed a large open-circuit potential (OCP) of 0.864 V and was able to deliver a maximum current density of 5.4 mA cm-2. The EFC reached its maximum power density (2.3 mW cm-2) at 0.55 V.