Water Uptake in Novel, Water-Stable, Heteropoly Acid Films
31P and 1H NMR have been used to determine the side chain attachment and IEC of the PPA functionalized FC-2178. The immobilized tungsten content was measured using PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) elemental analysis. Knowledge of the IEC and tungsten content elucidates the contributions to IEC from both PPA and HPA. SAXS and AFM have been used to determine the membrane morphology. Samples with a continuous conducting phase have shown proton conductivities up to 20 mS/cm at 110°C and 50% RH.
 Chandan, A.; Hattenberger, M.; El-kharouf, A.; Du, S.; Dhir, A.; Self, V.; Pollet, B. G.; Ingram, A.; Bujalski, W., High temperature (HT) polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) – A review. Journal of Power Sources 2013, 231, 264-278.
 Herring, A. M., Inorganic–Polymer Composite Membranes for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells. Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part C: Polymer Reviews 2006, 46, 245-296.