Interrogation of Active Battery Material Intrinsic Properties
Here we report the electrochemistry, conductivity, and visual changes associated with the electrochemical reduction of small individual particles of electrochemically active material. Our examination of individual small particles involves aggregates of several crystallites where the influence of grain boundaries must be considered. In addition to quantitative electrochemistry, the particles were characterized as a function of state of charge. For example, a nanoprobe system was utilized to determine the resistance of the particle. Different locations within an individual particle were measured and probed the local resistance changes as a function of particle reduction. Finally, correlation of the behavior of the individual particle was reconciled relative to bulk material electrochemical performance. This study will help elucidate the behavior of mesoscale energy storage systems.