Electrical Characterization of Dry and Wet Processed Interface Layer in Ge/High-K Devices

Wednesday, October 14, 2015: 11:40
105-B (Phoenix Convention Center)
Y. M. Ding, D. Misra (New Jersey Institute of Technology), M. Bhuyian (New Jersey Institute of Technology), K. Tapily, R. D. Clark, S. Consiglio, C. S. Wajda (TEL Technology Center, America, LLC), and G. J. Leusink (TEL Technology Center, America, LLC)
Even through Ge/high-k interface has been extensively studied the high leakage current associated with these gate stacks continues to introduce frequency dispersion and hysteresis in capacitance-voltage (CV) and conductance-voltage (GV) characteristics. These dispersions severely limit the understanding the interface and accurate estimation of interface state density, Dit and equivalent oxide thickness (EOT). Since several parameters like EOT, flatband voltage, bulk doping, surface potential as a function of gate voltage are important and bulk defect and interface defect concentration affect the CV and GV characteristics several corrections to the characteristics are required to obtain accurate values.

We have measured the CV and GV characteristics of Ge/ALD 1nm-Al2O3/ALD 3.5nm-ZrO2/ALD TiN MOS capacitors with three different interface treatments by HP4284 LCR meter using different frequencies. The interface treatments are (i) simple chemical oxidation (Chemox); (ii) chemical oxide removal (COR) followed by 1 nm oxide by slot-plane-antenna (SPA) plasma (COR&SPAOx); and (iii) COR followed by vapor O3 treatment (COR&O3).  The plots were corrected by three different methods. Firstly, we removed the effect of sheet resistance, RS. The second approach uses data (capacitance and conductance) measured at two different frequencies to solve two unknown variables (capacitance and conductance) (1). The solved CV plot is closer to the corrected CV plot at 1 MHz rather than that at 100 KHz. This allows us to use 1MHz corrected data to obtain the EOT information. Additionally, this approach helps to verify that 1MHz data is robust assuming that defects do not respond to the other frequencies used here. The third approach is to modify the measurement circuits (2) to enhance CV and GV characteristics. Fig. 1 shows the CV characteristics after the corrections by three different approaches for three different samples. COR&SPAOx samples show excellent CV characteristics. The details of all the correction methods and the advantages of these methods to correct CV and GV will be discussed. We will demonstrate that the correction methods are suitable for accurately measure the interface characteristics. The Dit calculated by two method (conductance and capacitance spectroscopy) (Fig. 2) are compared and discrepancy of the results between different samples and different methods will be explained.



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