Titanium-based materials as lithium-ion battery negative electrode have been widely studied. The zero strain insertion leads to excellent reversibility (>10,000 times) and capacity retention rate;  the combination of high lithium mobility results in high rate ability of the batteries;  higher working potential (>1.2 V vs Li+/Li) brings better safety with no lithium metal deposition during discharging compared to the carbon anodes.  But the relatively low electric conductivity (e.g. Li4Ti5O12 is only 10-9 S·cm-1 at 20 ℃) limits their ability and low temperature applications.
LiTi2O4 adopting the ramsdellite structure was firstly fabricated by D.C. Johnston.  This structure consists of distorted TiO6 octahedra which connect together by sharing edges resulting in double linked columns. These columns form an open framework structure in which Li+ occupies 50% of the tetrahedral channel sites. Hence the remaining tetrahedral sites are available for Li+ insertion delivering a theoretical specific capacity of 161 mAh g-1 for complete reduction to Ti3+ and all tetrahedral sites occupied and presumably lithium could be extracted. For titanium ramsdellite series capabilities of 180 mAh·g-1 (theoretical 298 mAh·g-1) for Li2Ti3O7, 113 mAh·g-1 for LiTi2O4 and 320 mAh·g-1 (theoretical 335 mAh·g-1) for TiO2 under 0.25 mA·cm-2 has been obtained by Gover. 
Titanium oxycarbide, TiOxC1-x, with a rocksalt structure formed by TiC and TiO, with O and C atoms sharing the anion sites, has a high metallic conductivity.  Thus partial replacement of O by C in transition metal oxides opens up a range of new compositions that might be expected to yield important functional properties.
In this work a novel carbon doping strategy was used to successfully fabricate LiTi2O4-xCx with the Ramsdellite structure. Initially TiOxC1-x and Li2Ti3O7 were made as raw materials by solid reaction ans then the LiTi2O4-xCx was fabricated in Ar under specific temperature. After that its structure was characterised and electrochemical property was tested. Based on refiment of X-ray diffraction patterns, increased levels of carbon substitution led to an increase in a and b parameters with a contraction in c. The incorporation of carbon was further confirmed by mass spectroscopy/thermal analysis. The performance as a negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries was enhanced by carbon substitution with increased rate capability and improved cycle ability. Especially for LiTi2O3.925C0.075 capacities of 151 mAh·g-1 and 67 mAh·g-1 could be obtained under discharging current densities of 100 mA·g-1 and 2000 mA·g-1 and capacity decreased by 5.57% after 100 cycles. This results from increased conductivity and reduced cell polarization.
Keywords: titanium carbide, lithium ion battery, carbon doping
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