Over the last three decades, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have emerged as premier electrochemical energy storage devices. Their widespread application includes cell phones, laptop computers, hybrid electric vehicles, etc.
Today, this technology is applied to grid-level energy storage, supporting renewable energy integration into existing power grid infrastructure. To support increasing demand for long-term, large-scale LIB systems; a deeper understanding of commercial LIB safety and reliability is required. Despite thousands of published articles detailing development of LIB components, comparative studies of electrochemical performance as a function of application environments and conditions are scarce. Specifically, parameters such as: cycle stability, capacity, rate capability, cost, and safety implications must be defined as a function of reasonable operating temperatures. Herein, a survey of the electrochemical performance of several commercially available lithium-ion 18650 cells is reported. These studies describe the electrochemical response to temperatures and discharge currents within manufacturer specifications. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used in conjunction with charge/discharge testing to help identify the mode of capacity fade under specific conditions. Several common phenomena occur within these systems, which are reviewed and discussed with a focus on their advantages and disadvantages.
Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND NO. SAND2016-12467 A