In response, polysulfide speciation is examined, under relevant conditions, in an operational coin cell, at varying states of charge and position, using in situ confocal Raman microscopy. Specifically, a spectroscopic 2032 coin cell was designed for use in in situ experiments while maintaining a representative environment for discharge. The coin cell consisted of a carbon-sulfur cathode, lithium metal anode, and 1:1 1,2-dimethoxyethane to 1,3-dioxolane with 1M LiTFSI and 0.25M LiNO3electrolyte. To aid in comparison, polysulfide standards were synthesized and investigated using electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS). Raman and ESI-MS were utilized to map polysulfide speciation and relative abundances along the discharge curve. The electrolyte within the cell was probed as a function of position within the cell to determine the spatial distribution of differing polysulfide species. Challenges associated with performing Raman spectroscopy within this environment, to differentiate the varying polysulfide species in solution, were also investigated.
Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.