Evaluating Transport Properties of LiPF6 in Concentrated EC/DEC Electrolytes By Self-Diffusivity from NMR

Thursday, 1 June 2017: 08:20
Grand Salon C - Section 18 (Hilton New Orleans Riverside)
Z. Feng (Argonne National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory), K. S. Han (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory), K. Higa (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory), and V. Srinivasan (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory)
Accurate prediction of the lithium ion battery charge-discharge behavior is critically important in many battery applications1, including for the high-power, high-energy battery packs used in electric vehicles. Accurate model predictions by, for instance, the classical porous electrode model developed by John Newman2, require accurate electrolyte solution transport properties. In this work, the self-diffusivities of all species in LiPF6/EC/DEC electrolyte solutions were characterized by PFG-NMR, and the protocol reported by Kim and Srinivasan3was used to evaluate the transport properties.


All chemicals were purchased from BASF. LiPF6 in EC/DEC (w/w 50:50) of different concentrations (1.5M to 0.1M) were prepared inside an argon-filled glove box and sealed in aluminum bottles before the PFG-NMR measurement.5

Diffusion coefficients (D) of the Li+, PF6- , and EC/DEC were measured by 7Li 19F and 1H PFG stimulated echo NMR spectroscopy. Since resonances from EC, DEC are separated in one-dimensional 1H spectra, separate diffusion coefficients could be measured. Experiments were performed at Larmor frequencies of 599.82 and 564.3 MHz for 1H and 19F, respectively, over the temperature range of 0 to 40 oC using a 14.1 T (600 MHz 1H) NMR spectrometer (Agilent) equipped with a 5 mm z-gradient probe (Doty Scientific), which can generate a maximum gradient strength of approximately 31 T/m. The echo heights, S(g), recorded as a function of gradient strength, g, were fitted with the Stejskal-Tanner equation (equation 1),


Shown in Figure 1 is the concentration dependence of self-diffusivity of LIPF6/EC/DEC measured by PFG-NMR for Li+, PF6-, EC and DEC. Careful inspection of the data leads to several conclusions below:

I. the self-diffusivities of all species decrease as the concentration increases or the temperature decreases, which is expected from the Stokes-Einstein equation

II. the self-diffusivity values are ordered as follows EC≈DEC>PF6->Li+

III. the concentration dependence of self-diffusivity for PF6-is stronger than other species, especially at lower concentrations, e.g. 0.1 M to 1.0 M, while Li+ shows the weakest dependence.

The generalized-Darken relation (Equation 1) for translating self-diffusivities and of species i and j into binary diffusivities, Dij, is given by equation (2):

where xi, xj, are component mole fractions. This relation was validated by Krishna and van Baten4. The resulting Fickian diffusivity values decrease as the concentration increases in a narrow range (3.7x10-10 to 2.4x10-10m2/s), and have similar magnitudes to these reported in EC/DEC or PC/EC/DMC as measured by electrochemical methods over a wide range of concentrations. Lundgren et al. 6 reported that the Fickian diffusivities of LiPF6 in the same electrolyte decreased from 2.8x10-10 m2/s to 2.0x10-10 m2/s in the range of 0.5M to 1.5M, as measured by galvanostatic polarization experiments (red connected points, Figure 2); Valøen and Reimers 7 measured the Fickian diffusion coefficients of LiPF6in a PC/EC/DMC mixture (10:27:63) (blue connected points, Figure 2).


1. L. Cai, R. E. White J. Power Sources14 (2011): 5985.

2. J. Newman, W. Tiedemann, Aiche Journal21 (1975), 25.

3. S. Kim, V. Srinivasan, J. Electrochem. Soc. 163(2016), A2977.

4. R. Krishna, J. M. van Baten, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 44(2005), 6939.

5. K. Han, N. Rajput, X. Wei, W. Wang, J. Hu, K. Persson, K. Mueller J. Chem. Phys., 141(2014), 104509.

6. H. Lundgren, M. Behm, G. Lindbergh, J. Electrochem. Soc., 162(2015), A413.

7. Lars Ole Valøena, and J. Reimersa, J. Electrochem. Soc., 152 (2005), A882.