In this work, the performance of five phosphorus-based additive electrolyte formulations (1% wt. ratio) is evaluated against a baseline organic carbonate electrolyte in NMC (LiNi0.5Mn0.3 Co0.2O2) / LTO (Li4Ti5O12) full cells. These additives include triethylphosphite (TEPi), tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)phosphite (TTFPi), tris(trimethylsilyl) phosphite (TMSPi), and tris(trimethyl silyl) phosphate (TMSPa). The electrochemical protocol used to evaluate these additives comprises multiple cycles up to 4.4 V vs. Li+/Li, a potentiostatic hold at 4.6 V vs. Li+/Li, followed by AC impedance spectroscopy and extended cycling. Of the formulations surveyed, only electrolytes containing TMSPa and TMSPi (aged for one week) increased the coulombic efficiency during the initial cycling. For the potentiostatic hold, only the aged TMSPi electrolyte lowered the terminal oxidation current compared to the baseline electrolyte, indicating increased stability of the cathode/electrolyte interface. AC impedance spectra indicated the aged TMSPi electrolyte had a slightly elevated high-frequency semicircle (traditionally associated with phenomena at the solid-electrolyte interphase) and a vastly decreased mid-frequency semicircle (traditionally associated with charge-transfer phenomena), compared with all other electrolytes tested. Characterization of cycled electrodes was performed with XPS and SEM will be presented.
The work at Argonne National Laboratory was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Vehicle Technologies, under Contract No.
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