Development of Intermediate Temperature Sodium Nickel Chloride Rechargeable Batteries: Polymer Seals and Cathode Formula

Monday, 29 May 2017: 14:40
Grand Salon B - Section 12 (Hilton New Orleans Riverside)
H. J. Chang, X. Lu (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory), K. Jung (Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology), V. Sprenkle, and G. Li (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
Large scale battery technologies have gained more attention as electric energy storage devices for renewable energy applications and grid stabilization. Due to growing safety concerns, high material costs and a limited cycle life, conventional lithium ion battery technologies have a limited portfolio for stationary applications. Recently, the sodium-nickel chloride (Na-NiCl2) battery has been under consideration as an alternative battery technology for stationary energy applications.[1] Yet, there are a number of challenges, such as the high operating temperature and high cost of hermetic sealing technologies, that hinder a further market penetration.

Typically, a tubular type Na-NiCl2 battery is operated at a high temperature above 280°C to obtain a reasonable electrochemical performance. Our recent work has demonstrated that a planar type Na-NiCl2 battery can achieve remarkable electrochemical performance over 1000 cycles even at an intermediate temperature (IT) of 190°C.[2] The lower operating temperature allows for the development of cost-effective sealing technology that uses conventional high temperature polymers as sealing materials.[3] We also demonstrate the Ni content in the cathode can be greatly reduced by 30% compared to that of the conventional Na-NiCl2 battery. Long term cell tests using the advanced cathode formula show a stable battery performance over 250 cycles.[4]

Therefore, our work suggests that developing polymer sealing technology and advanced low Ni-content cathode materials at intermediate operating temperatures might provide a new breakthrough to Na-NiCl2 batteries for practical stationary energy storage applications.


  1. J. L. Sudworth, J. Power Sources, 51 (1994) 105-114.

  2. G.S. Li, X.C. Lu, J.Y. Kim, K.D. Meinhardt, H.J. Chang, N.L. Canfield, V.L. Sprenkle, Nat. Commun., 7 (2016) 10683.

  3. H. J. Chang, X. Lu, J. F. Bonnett, N. L. Canfield, S. Son, Y. Park, K. Jung, V. L. Sprenkle, and G. Li. (submitted)

  4. H. J. Chang, X. Lu, K. Jung, V. L. Sprenkle, and G. Li. (in preparation)