With increasing numbers of cells being used in the world the need of a Post-Lithium-Ion technology emerges due to a limited availability of highly pristine nickel and cobalt and increasing need for recycling, environmental protection and overall energy efficiency. Nevertheless the is still an ongoing and very promising approach for e. g. novel stoichiometries of NMC materials, Lithium cobalt phosphate and nickel-rich materials with can significantly increase the energy density. Due to the very high reactivity and potential (i. e. 4.5 V) these materials require highly stable electrolytes.
Finally, lithium-sulphur can lead to a highly recyclable, environmentally friendly system. Having a silicon-based anode (> 85 % Si) included both volumetric and gravimetric energy density can mean an interesting alternative to metal-oxide based materials.
With the increased energy density, safety becomes a more and more important aspect in thermodynamic and kinetic investigations of these materials. This aspect can lead to the development of non-flammable electrolytes or solid state cells.
Solid state cells are a very different but highly promising approach. Having a solid-solid interphase between electroactive materials and electrolyte the chemicals mechanisms significantly change to solid state chemistry rather than solid-organic interphases chemistry.
All types of novel chemistries exhibit very different chemical mechanisms which require specific synthetically work for electrolytes, additives, binders, carbon materials, and even the surfaces of the electro-active materials itself.