(Invited) Past, Present, and Future of High-k/Metal Gate Technologies

Monday, 2 October 2017: 08:40
Chesapeake D (Gaylord National Resort and Convention Center)
H. Iwai (Tokyo Institute of Technology, National Chiao Tung University)
The SiO2 based gate insulator and poly Si gate electrode had been used almost 4o years for (C)MOS integrated circuits from 1970 to 2010 because of their extraordinary good properties of both the interfaces at the substrate and gate electrode. Thus, most of the people had not believed the replacement of SiO2/poly Si gate stack by that of high-k/metal in the products would be impossible, although the demand to introduce the high-k gate oxide became stronger due to the high tunneling gate leakage current when decreasing the gate oxide thickness with the scaling. However, the operation of high k/metal gate stack MOSFETs were demonstrated by several different organizations at the same time at IEDM 1999. Since then, many R & D organizations seriously participated to the research and development of high-k/metal gate stack for MOSFETs. It was in 2001, when Prof. Samares Kar proposed to create an ECS symposium on “Physics and Technology of High-k Gate Dielectrics”. Then, the 1st symposium was held in Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.A. on October 20-14, 2002. At that time total number of the presentations at the symposium was 34. The, number increased to 56 in the 2nd symposium in Cancun, Mexico, 2003, and 75, in the 3rd symposium in Los Angeles, in 2006, and so on. In 2007, Intel introduces HfO2 based high-kmaterial for the 1st time into their product. Later, the symposium was renamed with Semiconductors, dielectrics and metals for Nanoelectronics and still continues and contributed to give opportunities to the researchers and engineers for the paper presentation and discussion. Prof. Samares Kar has been the leading organizer of the symposium, maintaining rigorous standards to make the symposium one of the most successful in ECS. However, it was very sad that Prof. Samares Kar passed away on January 13, 2017 at his home in Kolkata, India. We would like to express our sincere appreciation for the hard work and rigorous drive towards the advancement of the symposium by giving presentations for the past, present and future of high-k stack technologies.