In this study, the intercalation chemistry on a variety of cathodes materials (e.g., V2O5, Mn2O4 and FePO4) have been investigated in various nonaqueous Zn electrolytes. The electrochemical and transport properties of the electrolytes (e.g., reversible Zn deposition, anodic/cathodic stability, ionic conductivity and diffusion coefficient) were characterized utilizing the experimental and computational analysis.3 Among various Zn metal cells, a Zn/nanostructured bilayered V2O5 cell with a selected acetonitrile(AN)-Zn(TFSI)2 electrolyte demonstrates good reversibility and stability for 120+ cycles with nearly 100% Coulombic efficiency and ~170 mAhg-1 of gravimetric capacity, albeit operating at a cell voltage of 0.7 V vs. Zn/Zn2+.6 A Zn/nanostructured layered δ-MnO2 cell with an AN-Zn(TFSI)2 electrolyte also shows good reversibility (~100% Coulombic efficiency) and stability for 50+ cycles with ~100 mAhg-1 capacity with an operating voltage of 1.2 V vs. Zn/Zn2+.7 By utilizing a combination of analytical tools, we address numerous factors affecting capacity fade, and issues associated with the second phase formation including Mn dissolution in Zn/δ-MnO2 cells that have been extensively cycled.7
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5. Z. Rong, R. Malik, P. Canepa, G. Gautam, M. Liu, A. Jain, K. Persson and G. Ceder, Chem. Mater. 2015, 27, 6016-6021.
6. P. Senguttuvan, S.-D. Han, S. Kim, A. L. Lipson, S. Tepavcevic, T. T. Fister, I. D. Bloom, A. K. Burrell and C. S. Johnson, Adv. Energy Mater. 2016, 6, 1600826.
7. S.-D. Han, S. Kim, D. Li, V. Petkov, H. D. Yoo, P. J. Phillips, H. Wang, J. J. Kim, K. L. More, B. Key, R. F. Klie, J. Cabana, V. Stamenkovic, T. T. Fister, N. M. Markovic, A. K. Burrell, S. Tepavcevic, J. T. Vaughey, 2017, in revision.