We have doped both PFSA and PBI polymers with HPA and shown that both approaches lead to membrnes with much improved properties for proton cnduction under higher an drier conditions. The HPA/PBI/phosphorics acid system that we have developed may be used to investigate direct fuel cells with a number of fuels beyond hydrogen as the membranes can opearte at temperatues >160°C. Our most ambitious approach is to make monomers from HPA and immobilize the HPA by polymerization into hybrid systems. In order to functionalize the Keggin anion one W oxygen octahedra is removed and a Si or P based organic functionality introduced that may be a monomer or a tether to a functionalized polymer backbone. Our first generation materials based on divinyl functionalized HPA and acrylate chemistry produced films with impressive conductivities, >100 mS cm-1 T >80°C and 50% RH. This model system contained ester linkages that we think may be hydrolysed under the harsh conditions of fuel cell operation and so we attached HPA via phosphonate linkages to perfluorinated polymers. Very recently we have fully perfected this chemistry and can now produce large area thin high loaded HPA films that have demonstrated high performance fuel cell operation. We will show performance data in both hot and dry fuel cell operation and also durability data that shows the materials pass the DOE tests. These membranes are currently being investigated as seperators in redox flow batteries using a large number of redox couples.