In this project, we demonstrates very efficient and scalable direct urine fuel cells without the use of bacteria to mitigate animal waste, as well as generate electricity from wastewater. Unlike common microbial fuel cells that use electrons produced by bacterial metabolism , the proposed fuel cell is to harvest electrons directly from urea in urine by converting urea into H2O, CO2 and N2. Newly engineered electrodes and electrolytes were developed for efficient and rapid electricity generation. Since the mechanisms relating to direct conversion of urea have still not been understood entirely, our condition monitoring sensors will be re-engineered to measure chemical species generated by reactions between animal wastewater and fuel cells. The performance of the fuel cell is enhanced by developing unique sensing probes to monitor conditions of the reactors and animal wastes. Electrochemical sensors based on hierarchically nanostructured functional metal oxides. The measurement of gas and liquid environment of animal waste is demonstrated by addressing sensitivity, sensitivity and response time.
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 Rabaey, K., & Verstraete, W. (2005). Microbial fuel cells: novel biotechnology for energy generation. Trends in Biotechnology, 23, 291-298.
 Ieropoulos, I., Greenman, J., & Melhuish, C. (2012). Urine utilisation by microbial fuel cells; energy fuel for the future. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 14(1), 94-98.
This work was partially supported by Agency for Defense Development (ADD) as global cooperative research for high performance and light weight bio-urine based fuel cell (UD160050BD), the Ocean University of China-Auburn University (OUC-AU) Grants program, and the International Collaborative Energy Technology R&D Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP), granted financial resource from the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea (20158520000210).