The present work aims at presenting the effectiveness of an approach that combines experimental and physically based modelling analysis of electrochemical impedance in investigating performance degradation occurring in different technologies [4-7]: HT-PEMFC, Low-Pt PEMFC, DMFC, PGM-free PEMFC. The general methodology is presented, highlighting the possible onset of different regimes, where distinct phenomena prevail. The continuum model based on macro-homogenous assumption, solves mass and ionic conservation coupled with Stefan-Maxwell diffusion and Ohm’s law; electrochemical reactions are described with Butler-Volmer kinetics. EIS is solved according to the approach reported in .
Subsequently some relevant cases are discussed in details, emphasizing the influence of heterogeneous degradation  and local mass transport . One analysis reported in this work is the effect of heterogeneity of ageing on EIS, which determine an increase of the cathodic charge transfer resistance that is not ascribed to a loss of electrochemical active surface, but to the uneven distribution of the reaction rate. Another analysis reported in this work consists in the simulation of EIS with commercial CFD codes: the effect of 3D geometrical features was analyzed, e.g bends in the flow field, flow bypass between channels, interdigitated flow pattern.
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