Wednesday, 4 October 2017: 10:30
National Harbor 1 (Gaylord National Resort and Convention Center)
Lithium-ion cells containing layered-oxide based positive electrodes and graphite-based negative electrodes are being cycled at high voltages (> 4.30 V) to increase energy density. In this presentation we will detail performance changes in these cells during cycling, with a particular focus on the crosstalk between electrodes. We show that the dissolution of transition metal (TM) ions from the positive electrode, and their migration and incorporation into the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) of the negative electrode, accelerates markedly as the upper cutoff voltage (UCV) exceeds 4.30 V. At voltages ≥ 4.40 V there is enhanced fracture of the oxide during cycling that creates new surfaces and causes increased solvent oxidation and TM dissolution. Despite this deterioration, cell capacity fade still mainly results from lithium loss in the negative electrode SEI. Among TMs, Mn content in the SEI shows a better correlation with cell capacity loss than Co and Ni contents. We estimate that each Mn ion deposited in the SEI causes trapping of ~100 additional Li+ ions thereby hastening the depletion of cyclable lithium ions. During the presentation we will highlight an electrocatalysis mechanism through which the deposited Mn ions accelerate electrolyte reduction and increase Li trapping in the negative electrode SEI. Methods to mitigate this cross-talk, through the use of coatings and additives, will also be discussed.